L. Szondi

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Last update 27 Apr 2004:
Age norms by Dr. H.J Ringger.
Adult Norms 21 - 90 Year (German)

Newsletter Spring 2004.
Dear Szondi Friends,
24 03 04, Alfaz del Pi, Costa Blanca, Spain

The Szondi Forum will be updated with the following new files.
1. Adult Norms 21 - 90 Year, German text.doc
2. 5 Year Norms boys.doc
3. Corrected CONTENTS of Return of the Ancestor.doc
4. Szondi Radio Spanish.doc
5. My professional Autobiography in SPANISH
6. Two new links.

We can also inform you Jean Melon has finished his Instruction CD. This CD shows many examples of Szondi profile interpretations, together with the corresponding case histories in French. Professionals can order this CD at Jean Melon's email address: melon_jean@hotmail.com
A precondition to order this CD is that you can legitimise yourself as a professional. At this moment I don't know yet the exact price of the CD, I guess it will be around 10 Euro. In case you have problems to contact Jean Melon send an email to me: leo@berlips.com and I will try to assist you.

Moreover I can inform you about two new Sites:
1. By Dr. Karl Burgi: http://www.leopold-szondi.ch/.
2. Freeks Dutch site: http://members.lycos.nl/szondi/index.php? (Dit Forum is opgericht in antwoord op het Szondi-forum met franstaligen. Ze is bedoeld voor al diegenen die van verre of dicht in Szondi, de psychiater, Szondi, de test, en/of de Pathoanalyse geinteresseerd zijn) GEFELICITEEERD FREEK en veel Succes met je site. Stuur mij je email adres dan schrijf ik je.

Originally I had planned to be able to put this time more information on the Forum. But due to problems with my health, difficult internet connections and the fact that I had to buy a new computer, with all the extra work this meant as for new installations, I had no time to work more as all this slowed down everything I had planned to do.

Another reason for the delay was the fact that I had to interrupt translating Dr. Ringger's article "The Psychology of the Paroxysmal drive", (Zur Psychology des Paroxysmaltriebes). The reason for this was that I wanted to prepare a model for a Szondi introduction course in Spanish. I decided then to use Martin Achtnich's way of presenting the Szondi factors by using his adapted Szondi's terminology. Achtnich did so in order that his vocational selection test (BBT Test) might be understood by vocational counsellors. I translated the essence of what Martin wrote about the 8 factors into English from where I could to get a Basic/Spanish text. But all in all this took much more time than I expected and still I have not finished this project yet.

Martin Achtnich certainly had a gift to present complicated processes in a simple and easy to understand way. So while working with his text I wondered if not even Szondi professionals talking with their patients could use Achtnich's key words. To test this I sent some examples of his text to a psychiatrist and asked his opinion. He was quite enthusiastic about the way Martin Achtnich succeeded to present Szondi's original clinical terminology in an easy to understand "every day" language.

I would have liked to publish Achtnich's descriptions of the Szondi factors on the Szondi Forum but could not do so as his text is copyrighted. However I think it is possible that, in case you want to read it, you can apply to get my translation in the same way as you might go to a library and apply to lend a study book. If you send me an application and certification by email that you only will use the text for your personal studies then I can send you my English translations. I repeat that this text is copyrighted and may not be published.

As for more personal news: 
After I spent the Christmas holidays in Sweden I returned back to Spain the beginning of January and had the good luck to get three wonderful weeks of real summer weather, with often 24 degrees in the sun. But since then even this part of Spain got its share of the Winter in February and the temperatures went down. However Spring is arriving and I hope to get more energy again to work with the Szondi Forum.

My problems with the Internet connection are over. A local inventive English computer technician installed a radio link between my computer and his internet Satellite transmitter. In this way I got an ASDL connection and can at last work at home. After Eastern I will be two weeks in Sweden.

I wish you all wherever you are a very nice Spring and send you my very best Happy Easter and best Szondi wishes, Leo Berlips, editor www.szondiforum.com

Last Update 6 Jan 2004

Evaluacion psicodiagnostica de pacientes dependientes a substancias toxicas a traves de la prueba de szondi (in Spanish)
Profilul pulsional al criminalului (in Romanian)
Editor's Professional Autobiography
Szondi's Personality Theory in The Year 2000 (in English)
Informationen über Szondi´s Personality Theory in the Year 2000. Book I. (in German)

December 2003

Dear Szondi Friends,
(Written in Falkenberg, Sweden where I spend the Xmas holidays with my family).

First I wish you all a:


Some of you might have wondered why I did not write or replied you earlier. Unfortunatedly this delay was caused by the fact that I went through some difficult months, due to the aftermaths of my operation. So I do hope you will excuse me! However the future looks brighter, mainly thanks to the Sun of Costa Blanca in Spain where I spent the last weeks and where I hope to live the next years.

As some of you know I already tried several times before to find a place to stay during the winter, e.g. in Thailand, Alicante, and Teneriffe, far away from the cold wintermonths in Sweden. I think this time I really found the place I looked for. I rented for a year an appartment in Alfaz del Pi, near Benidorm, Costa Blanca. There I will get in January an internet connection. This will make it much easier to keep in contact with you and so I feel optimistic again and hope to be able to continue during the next years to transfer articles and information about the Szondi movement on the www.szondiforum.com

During the following days, the last week in December, several new uppdates will be put on the Szondi Forum. Herewith follows some general information:

  • We have the pleasure to let you know that KARL LOUVET, representant of the Pathoanlytical branch of Szondi's theory, has started a new French Szondi informationsite: http://membres.lycos.fr/zon/index.html. This site includes a Szonditest data-interpretation program, using the Pathoanalytical circuit theory interpretation. We wish Karl Louvet all the successes he deserves with his new Site. (for information about an English data-interpretation take slavick@consul.com.ua
  • We also want to inform you that the Brazilian website address of clinical Psychologist: IDA MARIA SCHIVITZ has changed. The new address is: http://www.idamariamello.hpg.com.br
  • Prof. Borg in Finland has published a book about Szondi, more information about this book is published in the updates.
  • We plan also to attach a short Szondi biography to his picture on the front page of the Forum.
  • Moreover the first 173 pages of Hughes' book " THE RADIANT SHOCK OF DEATH" will be published on the Forum. These pages will be presented in six files, which makes it easier for you to load down the content.
  • It took time to keep my promise to some of you, but then "at last", also my "Professional Autobiography" will be put on the Forum. (the original title was "Sailing against the winds".)

For my Spanish readers I have very good news because in Spain I will concentrate most of my time in the future to make Spanish translations of important articles concerning Szondi's theories.

  • The new updates will also include (in the Spanish Section of the Forum) the "Results of the Szonditest of Drug addicts" (Spanish title: "Evaluacion Psychodiagnostica de pacientes dependientes de substancias toxicas a traves de la prueba de szondi).
  • In this connection I can inform you that I already finished (assisted by my Spanish friends Juan and Atti) a Spanish translation of Rolf Kenmo's Szondi based "QUESTIONAIRE". It can soon be used in Spanish speaking countries. At present the Questionnaire exists already in Swedish, English, German and Brazilian. For information about Kenmo's questionnaire in different languages see:

My new friend and Spanish teacher ATTI CARRERA I meet every day. Then we have long and interesting discussions. He is a retired teacher of Deaf- Mude children and has great international experience. Although Atti originally comes from the Basque country he helps me to improve my Spanish. He promised me to assist me in translating articles into Spanish and by this will become an important collaborator to Spanish ssection of the Forum. I think he is one of the most generous persons I ever met in my life and I feel proud that he became my friend.

I hope to get more luck with my planned translations than I had with the translation of van Meerbeeks article: (A genetic reading of the Szondi Drive Diagram based on the theory of Jean Piaget.) This article I originally had planned to translate and publish in this Newsletter. Unfortunately enough, after I finished translating the first part, I had to conclude that even the best translation never could be understood by professionals who had no knowledge of the Pathoanalytical Circuit theory. I really can tell you that this was a great deception for me. I had hoped that this article might contribute to increase the interest and appreciation of professional outsiders for Szondi's theories.

This was such a deception for me that I got depressed and, also due to to the aftermaths of my knee operation, I felt drained of energy and could not work for some time. However after my arrival, at the end of November, in Spain, the Costa Blanca's wonderfull climate gave me new inspiration and so I started working again with the Szondi Forum.

I hope that this information and the uppdates that soon will be placed will be useful to you and send you my very best Szondi greetings.
Leo Berlips, Editor www.szondiforum.com



Newsletter. 030801


Dear Friends,


This Newsletter I started writing you in Alfaz del Pi, near Benidorm, Costa Blanca in Spain, were I stayed one month. It was already 5 months ago I wrote you my latest news. Since then I have been much abroad, spent two months in Tenerife, Canary Islands, one  month in Thailand and this last month in Spain. So I have to agree with those of my friends who call me the flying Dutchman. I guess that my ancestors and Szondi’s (e) factor play an important role as the reason for this moving around, especially when I think that next December I hope to celebrate my 84 th birthday!


Anyhow to keep a long story short, as for my work during the last months I tried to continue to study the way Exner interpretation of the Rorschach. Moreover I even had the good luck to get several commissions to work  again with interpreting some Rorschach tests. Only a few week before we had bought the Exner Computer Calculation program. By using this  program I did not lose much time to make the required calculations.

All in all I must say that I was a positive surprise to experience the possibilities the Exner method offers. I get more and more the impression that, what one loses in subtilities compared with the European method, one wins by the practical and efficient way of working with the Exner survieuw. Still I believe that when one has to do very subtle differential diagnostics one should use the European method.  


Anyhow I really enjoyed myself to work again with doing this kind of job. The last Rorschach interpretations I made were about 40 (!!) years ago. Even this time I had to work making blind-diagnostic interpretations, I did not know anything else about the subject than the gender and the age of the subjects, fortunately enough my client was satisfied with my work.


My trip to the Costa Blanca in Spain was decided at the very last moment and quite unexpected. The reason was that Gunnel, my wife, started again an Institution to take care for girls with problems. Instead of bying a new building we use the greatest part of our own big villa.  

With these changes I found it better to be somewhere else during her first working period. I had the good luck to be able to rent a comfortable  apartment in a little village called Alfaz del Pi, on the Costa Blanca, not far from Alicante.


During my stay in Spain I had the pleasure to meet again some former friends in Alicante and make several new ones. Two of these were therapeuts who worked with Alternative methods and who plan to start a Center for Alternative medicin/therapy in Altea, a very beautiful beach resort close to Benidorm.  In many ways we felt that we were on the same ”wavelength” and, although I met them only a few times, it feels for me that I made some new and valuable friends. Their center is called ”CENTRO KARUSA.”. They start the 2 of August. (The Address is: C/de la Mar 109, Altea, Contact/Info: Dieter)  I hope next winter to hold some introductory courses presenting Szondi theories.


In the beginning of August I will be operated in my left knee and get a prothese. I hope this will be a success and after a rehabilitation period I hope to spend the winter again on the Costa Blanca.


As you understand during all this moving around I had  not much time over to work with the Szondi Forum and answer my correspondence, especially due to the very limited possibilities to use the internet.


However after my return to Sweden I published the rest of professor Richard Hughes book: ” The return of the Ancestor”. I publish it with another title as an  “Introduction to the Szondi test”. It is factually one of the two english introductions to Szondi’s Fateanalysis I know of. Hughes presents the orthodox original form of Szondi’s ideas. (“The old testament”)



During my stay in Spain I read some of the articles of the famous American philosopher KEN WILBER. He pointed out that PIAGET is the only psychologist whose ideas can be accepted by the scientific world.

This reminded me that I had an article about Piaget, written by Jean Pierre van Meerbeek (Forum, Section: Personality Development). The title is “Une lecture génétique du schéma pulsionnel szondien basée sur la théorie de Jean Piaget. (“A survieuw of the genetic development of the Szondi Drivediagram based on  Jean Piaget’s theory.)

For me, after readin Wilber’s opinion,  this article got therefor suddenly a very great importance, because if Ken Wilber is right and there is a correspondence between Piaget and Szondi that can be EXPERIMENTALLY proved, this ought to be of a very great value for the acceptance of Szondi’s ideas. Therefore I will soon translate van Meerbeeks article into English and publish it on the Forum.


Moreoever I have two other German articles about personality development on the Forum, both written by Dr. Phil. H. J. Ringger:

“Rorschach, Szondi and Sociogram” (part of present update!)  and 2. Die faktoriellen Reaktionen und ihre Wandlungen zwischen dem 3. und 20. Lebensjahr“ (The factor reactions and their changes between the age 3 - and 20.)  Both you find on the Forum, one in the SECTION: Personality Development. Even these two articles I will try to translate as soon as possible.

In this connection I remind you also of the article by Alberto Perralta in which he gives synpunkter på utvecklingen I samband med Zulliger test.

Den finns på Spanska.


After my rehabilitation period I hope some day find the time to concentrate on a more detailed review of Hughes book about ”The Radiant chock of Death." By pointing out some aspects of the (e) factor, Hughes was one of the first to point out a possible biological foundation of the deep mental processes which take place in Ego-loss or during the death process (as for instance described in the Tibetan Book of Life and Death.)


As some of you might have noticed the Szondiforum did not function during several weeks. However this problem was solved by my son Jens who worked one night through to find a solution, at the same time he made an uppdate of the Forum..

This might be the right occasion to remind you that he and his older brother John Patrick did assist me in starting the Forum more than 5 years ago. So I am sure that I speak in the name of all the readers of the Szondi Forum to thank them both for their achievements. Thank you John Patrick and Jens !


I finish this newsletter by sending you all my best Szondi greetings, from a cool and rainy summerday Falkenberg, Sweden.

Leo Berlips / Editor

Editor of the SzondiForum

Last update 30 Jul 2003 02:37GMT / SWEDEN
New articles:

INTRODUCTION TO SZONDI (Table of contents of the book) Portugese: Martin Achtnich
Rorschach-, Szonditest und Soziogramm


Dear Szondi friends,

Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerefe.

As some of you already know I have changed my address again and live at present in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife. Canary Islands, which has a much better climate than wintry Sweden

This is moreover to inform you that in the next months I have to concentrate my activities on refreshing my knowledge of the Rorschach test. This is because the focus of our work has shifted. Rorschach diagnostics will therefore have to get a larger place in our work.

It was 66 years ago (!)that I was the third who imported this test in the Netherlands, in 1936 or 37 when I only was about 17. To tell you the truth I still feel somewhat proud of this. I still have a notebook covered with scribbled text by which I tried to record the most important essentials.

It took 25 years more however before I started professionally to work with the Rorschach, working for the Psychotechnical Institute in Gothenburg, Sweden, in the beginning of the sixties. I had been lucky and could study the Rorschach method following the lectures of the famous Rorschach specialist Dr. Bohm. During the following 12 years I used the Rorschach as my main test instrument, together with the Szondi test.

The combination of Percept analysis (Rorschach) and Motivation Analysis (Szondi) proved diagnostically to be very effective. (By the way, when I started my own business in 1969 I selected as the name for my company “Motivation Analysis." (It is this firm that sponsors the Szondi forum)

The next twenty-five years I worked as a group psychotherapist and psychodrama director. From this moment on I only used a short drawing test to select clients who could participate in our groups. Psychodrama has the advantage that it, right from the start, functions as a diagnostic test, “showing inside outside." Psychodrama’s development reflects the client’s inner dynamics in action (!) and it is then up to the psychodrama director how he will use this information therapeutically.

Looking at the “history” of Rorschach today one get the impression that Exner’s comprehensive system has nearly taken over the whole field of Rorschach testing, with all the advantages and disadvantages of such an approach. At present I do not have enough knowledge to judge exactly what has been won and what has been lost by using the Exner´s method . That I want to learn about the next months! The reason for this is that my as my wife has to work with the Exner Comprehensive method, so I am more or less forced to learn more about how to use it.

However, this í s an interesting challenge and I look forward to the day that I will be able to compare the European way of interpretation with Exner’s new approach. The result I hope to let you know in a short article with the title: “Rediscovering Rorschach”.

All of you who have experience in the use the Rorschach, together with the Szondi test, please write me some lines about it.

I have the could luck that I can start right away with an article of Jean M é lon about this topic. He wrote a doctor thesis about it. The synthese of which was presented at the Pathoanalytical Studies Center (Centre d’ Études Pathoanalytiques - CEP ) in Louvain-la-Neuve, the 31 January 1998.
In his introduction he wrote:
This text takes up, without any notable modification, the conclusive syntheses of my Doctor in Psychology thesis: “Szondi, Rorschach and Freud”. I propose to study, in their reciprocal enlightening, the correspondences between the Szondi data and those of Rorschach. This study was based on a population of 568 subjects from whom a Rorschach test and ten Szondi profiles were collected , from the population living in Liege between 1968 and 1973.

Herewith I publish the French original test of this article and my translation in English. I hope also that Spanish translation soon will follow.

If youi want to know more about the use of the Rorschach method I refer to Prof. Helge Malmgren, he presents a Rorschach self-study data program in English and Spanish called: “The Classical Rorschach”. He describes it in the following way: "These pages are devoted to the presentation and promotion of the Rorschach method, concentrating on the way it has been practiced within the classical European tradition. You will find his information on : >www.phil.gu.se/fu/ro/html<

Alberto A. Peralta of the American Rorschach Archives, Miami, FL, U. S. A has written an interesting article called: SYSTEMATIZATION: a “Definitive Breakthrough in Rorschach Theory”. You will find the English and Spanish text on the Szondi Forum.

http://www.phil.gu.se/fu/ro.html http://www.phil.gu.se/fu/ro.html

From Puerto de la Cruz I send you all my best Szondi wishes,
Leo Berlips, editor. >www. leo@berlips.com<

SZONDI and RORSCHACH by Jean Mélon (¹1)

Le texte originel se trouve à la fin-

This translation was made by your editor who is not a professional translator. Therefore I hope you have some comprehension if this translation is not perfect. Anyhow I have to take the full responsability of any misinterpretation. In case however you can send me a better translation I promise you to have it published with your name. Lb.

Jean Mélon

Das Wahre ist das Ganze (Truth is the whole), but the whole is only the essence realizing and completing itself by means of development.
G. W. F. HEGEL. Preface to the Phenomenology of the Spirit, p. 18.

Any classifications that you read causes in you the desire to put yourself somewhere in the table : where is your place? You believe initially to find it; but little by little as a statue which desegregates or a relief that arodes, its form is spread out and demolished, or better still, like Harpo Marx, losing his false beard under the effect of the water which he drinks. You are not any more classable, not by excess of personality, but on the contrary because you traverse all the fringes of the spectrum: you reunite in yourself allegedly distinctive features which do not consequently distinguish anything any more. You discover that you are at the same time (or in turn) obsessional, hysterical, paranoiac and moreover perverse (without speaking about the psychoses of love), or that you add all decadent philosophies...
Roland Barthes. Roland Barthes. Threshold, Writers of always, p. 146.

Szondi’s Ego theory rests primarily on the concept of cleavage (Ichspaltung).- See Note : N/1 at the end.

Szondi thus exploits until the ultimate consequences the intuitions of BLEULER, N/2, and of FREUD and locates himself in the line of Bleuler’s most original and fertile followers.
Szondi presents the Ego like a whole of elementary functions — projection, inflation, introjection, negation — which join and dissociate by cleavage.
Cleavages operate on the original block of the four functions of the " Total Impulse " ( Ganztrieb) and dissociate them according to certain plans, of which the specification was made possibly the study of the Ego structures.
The analogy with the structure of the crystals, as proposed by FREUD in order to
explain (clarify) the concept of cleavage, is particularly adequate to illustrate the mode of organization and Ego operation according to SZONDI. He always presents the Ego profiles together which result from the same cleavage (vertical cleavage: ± O/O ± , diagonal: +-/-+, horizontal: --/++ etc.). He supposes thus that these complementary profiles correspond to antithetic positions — but also secretly Ego relationships.

Our research confirms the thesis of Szondi. The lines which follow while gathering some of our observations, based on this mode of mirror contrast, try to show it.

The Vertical cleavage: the pathetic Ego (O ±) and the pathic Ego ( ± O).
The Vertical cleavage tends to produce two figures of the Ego which belong to opposite modes of « Being -in- the- world´ » and to conceive its duration. N/6.

This position O ± proves to be intolerable. All occurs as if, out of a fixed position in p- or in p+, both stable positions the project how to exist proved to be impossible. The discomfort of this position comes from the extreme distance which separates the indefinite form of the « Participative Non-Being » (p -) from the infinite form of
« Being-All » (p+).
The question put in factor p is, very specific, that of the primary identifications characterized by the abrupt passage of a body image in pieces to that of a complete and virtually all-powerful body, a passage where " the assumption of the Ego is celebrated " (Lacan).
This fulgurating trajectory, always ready to be reversed and to fall back in the parcelled body, confers on the Ego which undergoes it the pathetic character of Hamlet´s: « To be or not to be... to die, to sleep.... Is it that the consciousness makes us cowards? »
In the register factor k, which is that of " reality " – understood in the sense of « the objectal » in as much as it is opposed to the register of the " narcissistic " – the question is not any more «  To be or not to be »" but «To have or not to have » ". Here it concerns above anything else /the question/ to possess one’s own sex. To formulate it shortly, let us say that the distance, which separates k+ from k - is that, regulated by the interdiction to enjoy oneself, which separate the hand from the sex. / sépare la main du sexe/. Instead
While in factor , the question is put forward of the interdiction to exist like a separate individual and to state a desire in the (grammaticaly) first person.

The problematic k+/k- redoubles on the Ego level the opposition between S and P, /S : Sexual Vector, P : Vector of the Law.lb/ that is to say the conflict between the sexual pleasure and the interdict, while the alternative p+/p- refers to the differentiation process between the « I-Ego » (Sch/p+) and « the Other » (C/p -). N/8

If p is the factor of the the primary identification, in connection with the question of
« To Be », the factor k is that of the secondary identifications, in relation with « To Have » which undergo the impact of the sexual interdicts. These " intronegatives " /persons/ easily give Rorschach kinaestetic (M) responses which "tell a history". N/7 

We give here the example of an " obsessional " subject who gave to board IV the following responses:
" ... a child who swings up and down on a swing...
A king sitting on a throne, he looks as if he is tired to reign, one would say the Czar...
A mujik who advances resolutely, with a harpoon in each hand...
- Continuation and end: -
the Czar falls down from his throne, four irons in the air.
The mujik triumphed, but it is somewhat a too easy triumph; the Czar did not want anyhow not more to reign ... "
What here attracts the attention is the remarkable adequacy between the form and the contents. ´The Conflict with the Super-Ego (the Czar), resulting from interdict of masturbation (the child « going up and down »), is represented dramatically through kinesthetic responses ´(M) of various type (extension, static, inflection...). It points out that the conflict with the father, centered on the interdict to enjoy the penis, was completely interiorized and subjected to the " activity of negation ".

To the " pathetic " Ego, abandoned and depersonalized (k O p ±) , corresponds a " pathic " Ego,N/10, that does not reject " the serious, the doubts, the patience and the work of negation " (HEGEL) but that on the contrary, sometimes, like Sisyphus enjoys it.

The " fight to death " centered on the desire to be recognized by the Other in one’s own desire (p+), unless falling into the most total servitude (p -), can indefinitely remain subjected to the requirements /impérativ/ of the Whole or Nothing which reign in factor p. Here /in the k factor.lb/ it is mediated, and converted into a dialectical conflict centered on the appropriation (k) of the - sexual - object´which ensures identity, autonomy and independence. ,Subsuming the dilemma that cannot be bypassed and is caused by the question of « To be » or «  To be Nothing », the mediation introduced by the factor k allows that the primary conflict can be made dialectical, by introducing the problematic of becoming and the insertion of the subject in his personal history and general History.
In relation to the clinical setting, the opposition between the pathic Ego and the pathetic Ego is similar to that what distinguishes the " strong " and " hard "obsessional Ego,
( ± O) from its " weak " double (O ±) , dépersonnalised or prepsychotic.

Diagonal cleavage: from autism (- +) to another (+ -) N/11.
There exists between the two types of subjects who Szondi qualifies as
"autists" (k + p -) and " inhibited " (k – p +) major differences N/12. ; but, in one point at least, they resemble each other: both , the first and the other group, are faced, without any possible mediation, to the question of the primary identifications. what makes rage here is a inexpugnable conflict between the investments in partial objects and the narcissistic investment in the Self.
Clinically, it is noted that the group of the " autists " includes nearly 50% of the residual schizophrenics, who for a long time were an-evolutives, while in the group of the
" inhibited " persons, one locates approximately 50 % hysterics and 25 % psychotics described as acute or processual patients.
The first interesting fact lies in the contrast made by the cutting of in two varieties of psychotic states, the acute and the chronic, clearly differentiated on the basis of the contrast (opposition) between the two Ego profiles resulting from diagonal cleavage.
The other fact which gives rise to thought is the affinity, as noted by Freud and always again put forward by the question of the hysterical psychoses, between hysteria and the psychosis in its fertile moments.
We will consider the contrast between the two principal forms of psychosis, the residual one, and the processual or acute one.
What always strikes the attention when reading the Rorschach is the extremely cold and devitalized tone of the " autists "responses, in contrast to the intensity, nourished by the exaltation and despair, characteristic for the" inhibited " ones.
The conflict of the investments is directed by the autist in the direction of an absolute primacy conferred to the partial object; /in contrast to lb/ the psychotic during the evolutionary phase, where one rather assist at the desperate efforts of a subject who tries to autoconstitute himself like an « I » and does not succeed .
The autist, like the melancholic and the fetishist on other levels, discover completenes in the perpetually renewed introjection of a breast that he indefinitely reproduces in a hallucinatory way. It is in this sense that we invoque the " primacy conferred onto the partial object ". The autistic schizophrene Ego deserves to be defined like a
« Ego–mouth- breast » . In the same way one could indicate the melancholic person as a " Ego-sphincter–crushed - destroyed object " and the perverse Ego like a
"Ego- sliced off sex--fetish " person.
In the three cases, the Ego is entirely absorbed by its function as a squarer and does not cease to take over the desired object from the body of the other and to identify itself completely with this object, or with the relation of production-consumption which he maintains with this object.
In a contrary way one observes in the " inhibited " persons the withdrawal of the investment in the partial object (k -) and the transfer of the object libido onto the imposing self image (p +). The exaltation which characterizes this movement of Ego auto-production of the « I » could not make to forget all that is lost in this operation.
What the autist refused while amalgamating with the object, the " inhibited inflative one " asserts : by only wanting « to be -for-oneself », he starts a militant combat against the objects. In particular against the sex object, paradigm of any unbearable difference and the most selected /priveliged/ expression of the insupportable « absence of being complete » (complete=  both man and woman, lb) .

In Rorschach, this aspiration to arrive at the state of being complete is reflected by the overproduction of human content scores in contrast to their total absence among the
" autists ".
What impresses most in the acute psychotics, is the extreme distress in which they plunge by the revelation of the difference between the sexes. There of they draw the conclusion that any erotic meeting, any communication passing by the body, is radically excluded.
Shouldn't one see in this conjunction a crushing castration anguish and the « primum movens » of any psychotic crisis he categoricaly does not want to get acquainted with ?
For some, the damage stops there. Initial fear leads, on the one hand, to a keen fight without any slackening against sexuality and, on the other hand, to a savage retirement towards the romantic summits where nostalgia and despair without armistice alternate:
" There is no happy love ".

For others, the destructive activity does not focus any more only on this damned sex –
" Sex separates what love links ", complained ARTAUD - it prolonges itself by a parcelling out of the whole body that restores to each erotogenic zone its original independence: mouth, anus and sex start again to function on their own account. This fusion of the Ego with the Ideal Ego recovering the absolute power of the partial objects is what is connoted by Sch + -.

The contrast between -+/+- thus refers according to us to the opposition between two forms of autism, the " autism-in-Being " (- +) and " autism-in- Having " (+ -) of which the first corresponds to the psychotic « fertile moments » , while the second is the prerogative of the psychotic residual states, characterized by the deepest regression.
It is possible - and SZONDI supports this opinion - that the inversion of - + in + -, which corresponds to the falling down of the first in the originatinal state, summarizes in a seizing way the schizophrenic destiny: from one autism to another. From the abyssal vacuum of thought without object to the grandios self, full with body-object, assembly of machine-organs.

Horizontal cleavage: the affirmative one (k+ p+) and the negative one (k- p -)

There are no other subjects who are more oppositional then these. (Sch - -) N/13

If it is allowed to imagine the possibility of a passage of O ± to ± O (change into a mode of stable nevrotisation of the obsessional type) or of - + to + - (which passes through the psychotic traject) and if the experimentation sometimes indeed reflects the actualization of these virtual destinies, one practically does never find an example of the passage of ++ ínto - - or vice versa. N/14

Considered from the nosographic view point, the negativists /deniers/ appear as the main representatives of the pathological form of existence characterized by a deficiency of psychical working-through: /as seen in lb/ diseases known as psychosomatic, psychopathies, anxiety neuroses, simple depression.

The deniers /negativists/ restricters/ have a poor psychic life and few phantasies. They give the impression of living at the margin of their unconscious and att the margin of any desire. The investment in material reality in its mechanical dimension - " operational thought " – ís there privileged place of defense: external reality against internal reality. ´

At the opposite side, the affirmatives prefer, sometimes wrongly, the psychical reality and the world of phantasies. It would be false to say that they are unaware of external reality or that they ignore it, but they have nothing against drowning it under a flood of often very personal phantasies. It is on their premises that one finds the greatest number of sublimated subjects, idealizing the impulses, or artists capable of a transcending /transréelle/ vision of the world.

If we have chosen to call the first, the deniers /negagtivists/ and the others the affirmative ones, it is not only because this qualification reflects the immediate direction of the Szondi signs (+ and -) but especially because it evokes a typology, that of NIETZSCHE, that proves relevant to indicate these two types of individuals. The affirmative one, or the active subject, is, according to NIETZSCE, the one who affirms the value of Life, of the world and of his-self.
The denier or the " Re-activ " is the man of resentment who neither can nor will give value to anything. ´That is, in our opinion, that which rerflects (Sch - -) : a group that deflate all values. N/15

What struck us more particularly when reading the Rorschach of the affirmative ones is a certain tone, or a certain rhythm, made by an alternation of flow and reflux, like the rising and falling of the tide. This is where the essential dynamism of the impulse would expresse itself. Something like the pendular motion of the Eternal Return, that undoubtedly is the most successful metaphor that has been invented to represent the life of the impulses. Guy ROSOLATO, locating there the essential source of creativity called it the " metaphoric-metonymic oscillation ". N/16

One will remember the responses, on the´board Nr : X of Rorschach, of this follower of Empédocle celebrating the victory of the forces of life:

« There I see the two eyes of a child who was not born yet... The hope... the mislaying... the return... the search for an absolute... the limit... the gift of life... the construction of what is new.. The coupling... two beings who are physically very close...

Fusion, separation in the unity... The similarity of all and all... the various situations which are however the same but located elsewhere. ...The other is far away but is the same... all are like him , all search to realise themselves, the small ones like the large ones, all walk on,,.. some are on the way, the others look at, some express themselves by gestures, others by thought but all seek to meet again...

The eyes of the child who has not come outside are already there to question us, he invites us to prepare his arrival... a new mystery for us. He questions us without knowing... the world is there and it remains us to complete it.

It is with that which we call the eyes that we see, the eyes which look at us and all that surrounds us « 

The proximity and the familiarity that the affirmative subject maintains with the unconscious is translated by the retraction of the negation.

Love (O -) and work ( ± +).

SZONDI evokes the image of the " compulsive worker " (Zwangsarbeiter) to indicate (Sch ± +), while he invoques the " primitive mentality " to characterize the
" participative "´Ego (Sch 0 -).

The contrast between a hyper developped Ego and the most primitive or most regressed form of the Ego could apply to indicate others as well, but, basically, this contrast is brought back to this: the " Zwangsarbeiter " works compulsively. He uses the impulse to produce, more than any other subject, as many descendants /rejetons/ , as possible, as well in the affect register (Affekt-Representanz) as in that of the representation ( Vorstellungs-Representanz) . In contrast to this the « Participative-Projective » person does not produce anything, he relies completely on the Other for all that has to do with the treatment of his instinctual tensions. In the first case, (Sch ± +) the container intended to receive the impulses is a highly differentiated psychic apparatus, in the second case
(Sch ± +) is there practically no psychic activity so to say ; the container is necessarily the different one, or the Other.

The Ego ( ± +) endeavours to exceed the question of the " primary paranoiac identification " (p+) by mediating it (k ±) by means of creative work - " Man is nothing else than the sum of his acts " says SARTRE - and we thought that there was not a more beautiful allegory of this type of subject than the « hegelian  slave », of whom the analysant is in our time the faithful heriter: to change oneself and to transform the world constitute only one and the same enterprise.

The Ego (k 0 p –) does not make so many problems for himself . It is enough for him to resort to the simple mechanism of the projective identification and the idealization of the Other to find his peace of mind. We haved named it as the Group Ego, the anonymous Ego, that rests on a Great Other or the others, of whom he receives the determination of his desires. By himself and for him self, he does not have an existence and does not either want to have one either.

Evoking the primitive horde, FREUD says that the activity of representation is inversely proportional to the power of the emotional ties which link between them the members of a group.

Experimentaly, it is exactly what we note: while the " workers " come at the head as for the production of instinctual " representations " by representations of (M) and of affects (C, E, Clob), the " participative ones " arrive in tail.

The contents of the kinesthesies (M) are very revealing. ´The " workers " produce a great number of responses in wnich they precisely expressed their eagerness to carry the burden of existence and to integrate its negative /aspects/ as Loss and Death.
In contrast the " participative ones " give only a few but, very significantly, they express almost all the need to amalgamate /fusion/, or, more normally, that of a strong emotional tie. In addition one commonly observes that the tendency to fusion , nearly necessary, has as a corollary the anguish to be destructed, persecuted or nihilated.

The trajectory which goes from (k 0 -) to ( ± +) achieved the destiny promised in Genesis: Man driven out of paradise (p -) because he wanted to be similar to God (p+) is cursed in his sex (k -) >Yahvé told the snake: " I will put an enmity between you and the woman » - and condemned man to procreate, to transform the earth, and always to be forced to do the patient and painful " work of the negation " (k ±) .

In the myth of the original sin the Ego devotes its will to assume its constitutional megalomania: if the Ego only is /existss of/ images, mirage or collage and an adjoining of a bunch of stories, it is fatal that it seeks in the culpability of its being and its desires a centre of gravity, corresponding to the measurement of importance which it gives to itself. ´His majesty the Ego nourishes itself by an imaginary fault /in order/ to give itself weight. But this weight is much heavier to carry than all the others.
Thus it dreams that someone else liberates it , that another finally carries the burden instead, that at last it is loved.!
" For where love awakes, that dark despot, Ego perishes, ".
Muhammad Ibn Muhammad, quoted by FREUD.

N/1. This article was presented at the Pathoana lytical Studies Center (Centre d’ Études Pathoanalytiques - CEP — in Louvain-la-Neuve, the 31 January 1998. This text takes up without any notable modification the conclusive synthese of our Doctor thesis in Psychology: “Szondi, Rorschach and Freud”. We then proposed to study, in their reciprocal reflection, the correspondences between the Szondi data with of those of Rorschach. This study was based on a population of 568 subjects from whom we had a Rorschach test and ten Szondi profiles. These were collected from the population living in Liege between 1968 and 1973.

N/2. It is BLEULER who, in 1911, changed KRAEPELIN’s term dementia praecox into schizophrenia (cleavage psychosis) and introduced the concept of cleavage in the center of the study of psychopathology. One generally omits to announce that BLEULER did not conceive Spaltung (cleavage) as a specific mechanism of schizophrenia, but as a specific physiological phenomenon that one could find even in normal people and that functioned only in an exaggerated way in the schizophrenic.

N/ 3. Although the whole Freudian contributions implicitly postulate the division of the subject within himself as the basic fact of psychic functioning, it is only tardily, in the articles about « Fetishism » (1927) and the « Splitting of the Ego in the defense mechanism (1938) that FREUD refers by name to the process of cleavage, in connection with the perversion and the psychosis. However he had already used the concept of " Spaltung " at the beginning of his work, in 1893, to indicate the cleavage between the dream and the day before where he saw moreover the model of hysterical dissociation.
It is Melanie KLEIN who was to confer to cleavage its decisive conceptual importance. She located it at the dawn of psychic life by the paramount dissociation between the " Böse " (Evil) and the " Gute " (Good).

N/4. We think, above all, of Melanie KLEIN, who utilizes cleavage like the originating defense mechanism, specifying the first state of´psychism like " schizoparanoic ", and of Jacques LACAN, for whom the Ego is an imaginary authority, " half of the subject, and not necessarily the right one ".

N/5. S. Freud (1932). The different instances of Personality”. The third of the New Conferences.

N/6. The reaction (Sch kO p ±) is not maintained (in a series of several profiles it seldom follows one another ) and is accompanied in Rorschach by a low and poor productivity. These subjects appear struck faced with the imposed task or show not to be very interested. They give few human content responses, few movement responses and many anatomical responses, an indication of the poor quality of their body image.

The reaction (Sch ± O), on the other hand, is very well maintained and accompanied in Rorschach by high productivity whose main characteristics are as follows:

1) Mode of approach : W D dd Dbl, revealing a predilection for all that is concrete, and a will to get actively a foothold in reality;
2) The W’s are of the higher secondary type. (« successive Combinatory » according to the European scoring. lb)
3) A large variety of the contents, a) many " object " responses. b) abundance of " sex ". responses. c) production of kinesthesia (M) of all the types (extension, inflection, static) and, not seldom, very particular kinesthesia in as much that they " tell a history " (see the example in the text) and translate by this fact a specific manner of integrating a temporal dimension.

N/7. We assimilate this assumption to p+ but we do not make it correspond for as much to the specular imago (mirror imago?lb) only. We think that this one can only be maintained when supported by the primary identification with the father of the personal prehistory, from whose authority derives the instance of the " Ego ideal ". S. Freud,
" The Ego and the Id “ ", CW, 13, p. 259.

N/8. In Rorschach, the responses " mirror, fusion and parceling out " which point out to the importance of the question of identification and of concerns about the integrity of the body is mainly found in those persons who use projection and inflation :
+ -, O -, ± -, - +, + +, O + (p.01 with the test of the chi²).

N/9. Szondi proposes the term "Intronegation " to indicate the specific process at work in the obsessional Ego ( ± O): We interprete this as a valorization (k+) of the negation
(k -). It is the favored reaction of the " Working Ego ". It is also the typical reaction of the working through of mourning in the phase of ambivalence where the tendencies balance between the idealization of the object (k+) and the devaluation of it (k -).

N/10. The « pathic » Ego is the one that, assuming the work of the negative producer of the concept,/ le travail du négatif producteur du concept/ clashes without slackening with the questions raised by the specifically pathic verbs: duty, to be able (capacity) , to want.
It is to say that the, typically " obsessional " conflict between the Ego and the ´Super-ego is in the center of the existential problems of a subject for whom the need to exist, precisely, is permanently posed.

N/11. Subtitle which is based on the confusion, introduced by BLEULER himself, between the most regressed form of schizophrenia, autism (+ -) and the esoterism of the poets, the philosophers and the monks (-+).

N/12. The Sch reaction (+ -) is reflected in Rorschach by the following characteristics:
R very low, F+% very low, F% high, mode of approach: syncretic G, absence of the H and M responses, contents cold, devitalized (snow, ice, stones...) and destroyed ;
Mode of Experienced constrictive.

The Sch reaction (- +) involves on the other hand: R raised, F+% normal, F% very low, Mode of Approach : primary G (combined superior), many H and M responses (especially M’s of dance), The content´s are mutilated rather than destroyed, Mode of Experience extratensive dilated, a warm and exalted mood tonality.

N./13. The Sch reaction (k - p -) involve in Rorschach:
R low ( Ј 12), F%, F+% and Pop % raised, absence of H and M, Mode of Experience coartive or extratensive.
The Sch (k+ p+) reaction is accompanied by:
R very high (> 30), F%, F+% and Pop % low, Orig % raised, many responses H and M, Experience Balance (M : C) dilated, often ambiequal or introversif.

N/14. Personally ", wrote SZONDI, I never met in my experience as a psychotherapist an affirmative subject who for a long time kept to living a gray life with the restrictions that correspond to the life of the man in the street " .

N/15. In the projective phase (p -), man does not have an Ideal yet, in the negative phase
(k-), he does not have it anymore" (Szondi, Ich-Analyse, page 463).

N/16 Guy Rosolato. “ La relation d’inconnu”. Paris, Gallimard, 1978.



Jean Mélon fn1

Das Wahre ist das Ganze . Le vrai est le tout. Mais le tout est seulement l’essence s’accomplissant et s’achevant moyennant son développement.

G.W.F. HEGEL. Préface à la Phénoménologie de l’Esprit, p. 18.

N’importe quel classement que vous lisez provoque en vous l’envie de vous mettre dans le tableau : où est votre place ? Vous croyez d’abord la trouver ; mais peu à peu comme une statue qui se désagrège ou un relief qui s’érode, s’étale et défait sa forme, ou mieux encore, comme Harpo Marx, perdant sa barbe postiche sous l’effet de l’eau qu’il boit, vous n’êtes plus classable, non par excès de personnalité, mais au contraire parce que vous parcourez toutes les franges du spectre : vous réunissez en vous des traits prétendument distinctifs qui dès lors ne distinguent plus rien ; vous découvrez que vous êtes à la fois (ou tour à tour) obsessionnel, hystérique, paranoïaque et de plus pervers (sans parler des psychoses amoureuses), ou que vous additionnez toutes les philosophies décadentes ...

Roland BARTHES. Seuil, Ecrivains de toujours, p. 146.

La théorie szondienne du moi repose essentiellement sur le concept de clivage (Ichspaltung).

Szondi exploite ainsi jusqu’à leurs conséquences ultimes les intuitions de BLEULER fn2 et de FREUD fn3 et se situe dans la ligne des continuateurs les plus originaux et les plus féconds.fn4

Szondi présente le moi comme un ensemble de fonctions élémentaires - projection, inflation, introjection, négation - qui s’associent et se dissocient par clivage.

Les clivages opèrent sur le bloc originel des quatre fonctions de la « pulsion totale » ( Ganztrieb ) et les dissocient suivant certains plans que l’étude des structures du moi permet de préciser.

L’analogie avec la structure des cristaux, proposée par FREUD fn5 pour expliciter le concept du clivage, est particulièrement adéquate pour illustrer le mode d’organisation et de fonctionnement du moi selon SZONDI. SZONDI présente toujours conjointement les profils du moi qui résultent d’un même clivage ( clivage vertical : ± O/O ± , diagonal : +-/-+, horizontal : --/++ etc... ). Il suppose ainsi que ces profils complémentaires correspondent a des positions antithétiques - mais aussi secrètement parentes - du moi.

Notre recherche confirme la thèse szondienne. Les lignes qui suivent, en regroupant , sur ce mode de l’opposition en miroir, quelques-unes de nos constatations, tentent de le montrer.

Le clivage vertical : le moi pathétique (O ± ) et le moi pathique ( ± O).

Le clivage vertical tend à produire deux figures du moi qui renvoient à des modalités opposées d’être-au-monde et de concevoir la durée .fn6

La position o ± s’avère intenable. Tout se passe comme si, hors d’une installation ferme en p- ou en p+, qui sont des positions stables, le projet d’exister s’avérait impossible. L’inconfort de cette position provient de l’extrême distance qui sépare l’indéfini du non-être participatif (p-) de l’infini de l’Etre-Tout (p+).

La question posée en p est, très spécifiquement, celle des identifications primaires caractérisées par le passage brusque d’une image du corps en morceaux à celle d’un corps complet et virtuellement tout-puissant, passage où se réalise « l’assomption jubilatoire du Je » (Lacan).fn7

Cette trajectoire fulgurante, toujours susceptible de s’inverser en retombée dans le corps morcelé, confère au moi qui la subit le caractère pathétique de la plainte d’Hamlet : « Etre ou ne pas être ... mourir, dormir.... Est-ce que la conscience fait de nous des lâches ? »

Dans le registre k, qui est celui du « réel » - entendu dans le sens de « l’objectal » en tant qu’il s’oppose au registre du « narcissique » - la question n’est plus « To be or not to be » mais « To have or to have not », et c’est de posséder son propre sexe qu’il s’agit avant tout. Pour parler bref, disons que la distance qui sépare k+ de k- est celle, réglée par l’interdit de jouir, qui sépare la main du sexe, au lieu qu’en p, se pose plutôt la question de l’interdit d’exister comme individu séparé et d’énoncer un désir en première personne.

La problématique k+/k- redouble au niveau du moi l’opposition S-P, soit le conflit entre la jouissance sexuelle et l’interdit, tandis que l’alternative p+/p- renvoie au procès de différenciation entre le Moi-Je (Sch/p+) et l’Autre (C/p-).fn8

Si p est le facteur de l’identification primaire, en prise sur la question de l’Etre, k est celui des identifications secondaires, en rapport avec l’Avoir, et qui subissent l’impact des interdits sexuels.

Les  « intronégatifs » fn9 donnent volontiers au Rorschach des kinesthésies qui « racontent une histoire ».

Nous redonnons ici l’exemple d’un sujet « obsessionnel » qui donne à la planche IV la réponse suivante :

« ...Un enfant qui se fait monter et descendre en balançoire...

Un roi assis sur un trône, il a l’air fatigué de régner, on dirait le Tsar...

Un moujik qui s’avance résolument, avec un harpon dans chaque main...

Suite et fin : le Tsar tombe en bas de son trône, les quatre fers en l’air.

Le moujik a triomphé, mais c’est un triomphe un peu facile ; le tsar n’avait plus envie de régner...  »

Ce qui doit ici retenir l’attention est la remarquable adéquation de la forme et du contenu. Le conflit avec le surmoi (le Tsar), issu de l’interdit de la masturbation (l’enfant qui se balance), est représenté dramatiquement à travers des réponses kinesthésiques de type divers (d’extension, statique, de flexion ... ). C’est le signe que le conflit avec le père, centré sur l’interdit de jouir du pénis, a été complètement intériorisé et soumis au « travail du négatif ».

Au moi « pathétique », abandonné, dépersonnalisé (O ± ), répond un moi « pathique » fn10, que ne rebute pas « le sérieux, la doute, la patience et le travail du négatif » (HEGEL) mais qui au contraire, parfois, tel Sisyphe, s’en délecte.

La « lutte à mort » centrée sur le désir d’être reconnu par l’Autre dans son désir propre (p+) à moins de tomber dans la plus totale servitude (p-), cette lutte qui peut indéfiniment rester soumise à l’impératif du Tout ou Rien qui règne en p, est ici médiatisée, et convertie en un conflit dialectique axé sur l’appropriation (k) de l’objet - sexuel- qui assure identité, autonomie et indépendance.

Subsumant l’indépassable dilemme sucité par la question de l’Etre et du Néant, la médiatisation introduite par le facteur k permet que le conflit primaire soit dialectisé, introduisant à la problématique du devenir et de l’insertion du sujet dans son histoire et dans l’Histoire.

Rapportée à la clinique, l’opposition entre le moi pathique et le moi pathétique est analogue à celle qui distingue le moi obsessionnel « fort » et « dur » ( ± o) de son double « faible » (o ± ), dépersonnalisé ou prépsychotique.

Le clivage diagonal : d’un autisme (-+) à l’autre (+-) fn11

Il existe entre les deux types de sujets que Szondi qualifie d’  « autistes » (+-) et d’  « inhibés » (-+) des différences profondes fn12 ; mais, sur un point au moins, ils se ressemblent : les uns et les autres sont affrontés, sans médiation possible, à la question des identifications primaires ; ce qui fait rage ici est un conflit inexpugnable entre les investissements d’objets partiels et l’investissement narcissique du soi.

Cliniquement, on note que le groupe des « autistes » comprend une bonne moitié de schizophrènes résiduels depuis longtemps anévolutifs, tandis que, chez les « inhibés », on repère

environ 50 % d’hystériques et 25 % de psychotiques qualifiés d’aigus ou de processuels.

Le premier fait intéressant réside dans l’opposition tranchée entre deux variétés d’états psychotiques, aigu et chronique, nettement différenciés sur la base de l’opposition entre les deux profils du moi issus du clivage diagonal.

L’autre fait qui donne à penser est l’affinité, notée par Freud et toujours à nouveau posée par la question des psychoses hystériques, entre l’hystérie et la psychose en ses moments féconds.

Nous allons nous pencher sur l’opposition entre les deux formes principales de psychose, la résiduelle, et la processuelle ou l’aiguë.

Ce qui ne peut manquer de frapper l’attention à la lecture des Rorschach, c’est le ton extrêmement froid et dévitalisé des réponses des « autistes », en contraste avec la ferveur, nourrie d’exaltation et de désespoir, qui caractérise les « inhibés ».

Le conflit des investissements s’oriente chez l’autiste dans le sens d’une primauté absolue conférée à l’objet partiel ; chez le psychotique en phase évolutive, on assiste plutôt aux efforts désespérés d’un sujet qui tend à s’autoconstituer comme Je et qui n’y parvient pas.

L’autiste, comme le mélancolique et le fétichiste à d’autres niveaux, découvre la complétude dans l’introjection perpétuellement renouvelée d’un sein qu’il reproduit indéfiniment sur le mode hallucinatoire. C’est en ce sens que nous invoquons la « primauté conférée à l’objet partiel ». Le moi du schizophrène autistique mérite d’être défini comme un « moi-bouche-sein ». De la même manière, on pourrait désigner le moi mélancolique comme un «  moi- sphincter - objet broyé-détruit » et le moi pervers comme un « moi-sexe coupé-fétiche ».

Dans les trois cas, le moi est entièrement absorbé par sa fonction d’équarisseur, il ne cesse de prélever l’objet du désir sur le corps de l’autre et de s’identifier totalement à cet objet, ou à la relation de production-consommation qu’il entretient avec cet objet.

Chez l’ « inhibé », on assiste, inversément, au désinvestissement de l’objet partiel (k-) et au report de la libido objectale sur une image de soi (p+) grandiose. L’exaltation qui caractérise ce mouvement d’auto-production du Je ne saurait faire oublier tout ce qui est perdu dans cette opération. Ce que l’autiste refusait en fusionnant avec l’objet, l’  « inflatif inhibé » le revendique : en se voulant pur être-pour-soi, il entame un combat militant contre les objets, en particulier contre l’objet sexuel, paradigme de toute différence et signifiant privilégié de l’insupportable manque-à-être.

Au Rorschach, cette aspiration à la complétude de l’Etre se traduit par la surproduction de contenus humains, contrastant avec leur complète absence chez les « autistes ».

Ce qui impressionne le plus chez les psychotiques aigus, c’est l’extrême désarroi où les plonge la révélation de la différence des sexes. Ils en tirent la conclusion que toute rencontre érotique, toute communication passant par le corps, est radicalement exclue. Ne doit-on pas voir dans cette conjonction d’une angoisse de castration écrasante et de la fin de non-recevoir catégorique qui lui est opposée le « primum movens » de toute crise psychotique ?

Chez quelques-uns, les dégâts s’arrêtent là. L’effroi initial débouche, d’une part, sur une lutte acharnée et sans relâche contre la sexualité et, d’autre part, sur une retraite farouche vers les cimes romantiques où nostalgie et désespoir alternent sans trêve : « Il n’y a pas d’amour heureux ».

Chez d’autres, l’entreprise destructrice ne vise plus seulement ce sexe maudit - « Le sexe sépare ce que l’amour unit », se plaignait ARTAUD - elle se prolonge d’un morcellement du corps entier qui restitue à chaque zone érogène son indépendance originelle : bouche, anus et sexe recommencent à fonctionner pour leur propre compte. Cette fusion du Moi avec le Moi idéal récupérant la toute-puissance des objets partiels est ce qui est connoté par Sch + -.

L’opposition -+/+- renvoie donc selon nous à l’opposition entre deux formes d’autisme, l’  « autisme-dans-l’Etre » (-+) et l’  « autisme-dans-l’Avoir » (+-) dont le premier correspond aux « moments féconds » psychotiques, tandis que le second est l’apanage des états psychotiques résiduels, caractérisés par la régression la plus profonde.

Il est possible - et SZONDI soutient cette opinion - que le renversement de -+ en +-, qui correspond à la retombée du primaire dans l’originaire, résume de façon saisissante la destinée schizophrénique : d’un autisme à l’autre, du vide abyssal de la pensée sans objet et du soi grandiose au plein du corps-objet, assemblage de machines-organes.

Le clivage horizontal : l’affirmatif (++) et le négateur ( - - )

Il n’y a pas de sujets qui s’opposent davantage que ceux-ci fn13 . S’il est permis d’imaginer l’éventualité d’un passage de o ± à ± o (réalisant un mode de névrotisation stable du type obsessionnel) ou de -+ a +- (qui accomplit la trajectoire psychotique) et si l’expérimentation reflète parfois effectivement l’actualisation de ces destinées virtuelles, il n’y a pratiquement pas d’exemple du passage de ++ à - - et vice versa .fn14

Considérés du point de vue nosographique, les négateurs apparaissent comme les représentants en titre des formes d’existence pathologiques caractérisées par une carence d’ élaboration psychique : maladies dites psychosomatiques, psychopathies, névroses d’angoisse, dépression simple.

Les négateurs ont une vie psychique pauvre et peu de fantasmes. Ils donnent l’impression de vivre en marge de leur inconscient et en marge de tout désir. L’investissement de la réalité matérielle dans sa dimension mécanique - « la pensée opératoire » - leur tient lieu de défense privilégiée : réalité externe contre réalité interne.

A l’opposé, les affirmatifs privilégient, abusivement parfois, la réalité psychique et la sphère du fantasme. Il serait faux de dire qu’ils ignorent la réalité externe ou qu’ils s’en désintéressent, mais ils ne se gênent pas pour la noyer sous un déluge de fantasmes souvent très personnels. C’est chez eux qu’on trouve le plus grand nombre de sujets sublimés, idéalisant les pulsions, ou d’artistes capables d’une vision transréelle du monde.

Si nous avons choisi d’appeler les uns négateurs et les autres affirmatifs, ce n’est pas seulement parce que cette qualification redouble le sens immédiat des signes szondiens (+ et - ) mais surtout parce qu’elle évoque une typologie, celle de NIETZSCHE, qui se révèle pertinente pour désigner ces deux types d’individus. L’affirmatif, ou le sujet actif, est, selon NIETZSCHE, celui qui affirme la valeur de la Vie, du monde et de soi-même, le négateur ou le «  ré-actif » est l’homme du ressentiment qui ne peut ni ne veut rien valoriser. C’est, à notre avis, ce que traduit Sch - - : une entreprise de ravalement de toutes les valeurs.fn15

Ce qui nous a frappé plus particulièrement à la lecture des Rorschach des affirmatifs, c’est un certain ton, ou un certain rythme, fait d’une alternance de flux et de reflux, comme le va-et-vient de la marée, par où s’exprimerait le dynamisme propre de la pulsion, quelque chose comme le mouvement pendulaire de l’Eternel Retour, qui est sans doute la métaphore la plus réussie qu’on ait inventée pour se représenter la vie même des pulsions ; ou bien encore ce que Guy ROSOLATO, y situant le ressort essentiel de la créativité, a nommé « l’oscillation métaphoro-métonymique ».fn16

On se souviendra des réponses, à la planche X du Rorschach, de cet émule d’Empédocle célébrant la victoire des forces de vie :

Je vois là les deux yeux d’un enfant qui n’est pas encore né ... L’espoir ... l’égarement... le retour ... la recherche d’un absolu... la limite... le don de la vie ... la construction du neuf.

L’accouplement ... deux êtres qui sont physiquement très proches ...

La fusion, la séparation dans l’unité ...

La similitude de tous et de tout... des situations diverses qui sont pourtant les mêmes mais situées ailleurs ... L’autre est loin mais c’est le même ... tous lui sont semblables, tous cherchent à se réaliser, les petits comme les grands, tous cheminent, les uns sont en route, les autres regardent, les uns s’expriment par des gestes, d’autres par la pensée mais tous cherchent à se retrouver ...

Les yeux de l’enfant qui n’est pas encore sorti du sein sont déjà là qui nous interrogent, il nous appelle à préparer sa venue ... nouveau mystère pour nous. Il nous interroge sans savoir ... le monde est là et il nous reste à l’achever.

C’est à ça que nous appellent les yeux que nous voyons, les yeux qui nous regardent et tout ce qui nous entoure .

La proximité et la familiarité que le sujet affirmatif entretient avec l’inconscient se traduit par l’escamotage de la négation.

------------------------------------ --------------- ---------------

Amour (o - ) et travail ( ± +).

SZONDI évoque l’image du « travailleur compulsif » (Zwangsarbeiter ) pour désigner Sch ± +, tandis qu’il invoque la « mentalité primitive » pour caractériser le moi « participatif » Sch 0-.

L’opposition entre un moi hyperdéveloppé et la forme du moi la plus primitive ou la plus régressée pourrait valoir pour en désigner bien d’autres, mais, fondamentalement, cette opposition se ramène à ceci : ce que le «  Zwangsarbeiter  » travaille compulsivement, c’est la pulsion, dont il tend à produire, davantage que tout autre sujet, un maximum de rejetons, aussi bien dans le registre de l’affect (Affekt-Representanz ) que dans celui de la représentation ( Vorstellungs-Representanz ) ; le « participatif-projectif », à l’inverse, ne produit rien, il s’en remet totalement à l’Autre pour tout ce qui regarde le traitement de ses tensions pulsionnelles. Dans le premier cas, le contenant destiné à recevoir les pulsions est un appareil psychique hautement différencié, dans le second cas, il n’y a pratiquement pas d’activité psychique à proprement parler, le contenant, c’est nécessairement l’autre, ou l’Autre.

Le moi ± + s’efforce de dépasser la question de l’identification « paranoïaque primaire » (p+) en la médiatisant (k ± ) par le truchement du travail créatif - « L’homme n’est rien d’autre que la somme de ses actes » dit SARTRE - et nous avons pensé qu’il n’existait pas de plus belle allégorie de ce type de sujet que l’esclave hégélien, dont l’analysant est aujourd’hui le fidèle héritier : se transformer et transformer le monde ne constituent qu’une seule et même entreprise.

Le moi 0- ne se pose pas tant de problèmes ; il lui suffit de recourir au mécanisme simple de l’identification projective et de l’idéalisation de l’Autre pour retrouver la paix de l’âme. Nous l’avons désigné comme le moi-de-groupe, le moi-on- anonyme, qui se repose sur un Grand Autre ou les autres, dont il reçoit la détermination de ses désirs. Par lui-même et pour lui-même, il n’a pas d’existence et ne veut pas en avoir.

Evoquant la horde primitive, FREUD dit que l’activité de représentation est inversement proportionnelle à la puissance des liens affectifs qui unissent entre eux les membres d’un groupe.

Expérimentalement, c’est bien ce que nous constatons : tandis que les « travailleurs » viennent en tête pour la production de « représentants » pulsionnels, de représentations (K) et d’affects (C, E, Clob), les « participatifs » arrivent en queue.

Le contenu des kinesthésies est ici très révélateur. Tandis que les « travailleurs » en produisent un grand nombre où s’exprime précisément leur acharnement à porter le fardeau de l’existence, à intégrer le négatif, la perte et la mort, les « participatifs » n’en donnent que quelques-unes mais, très significativement, elles traduisent presque toutes le besoin fusionner, ou, plus normalement, celui d’un lien affectif fort. On constate par ailleurs communément que la tendance fusionnelle a pour corollaire presqu’obligé l’angoisse de destruction, de persécution ou d’anéantissement.

La trajectoire qui va de 0- à ± + accomplit le destin promis par la Genèse : l’homme chassé du paradis (p-) pour s’être voulu semblable à Dieu (p+) est maudit dans son sexe (k-) - Yahvé dit au serpent : «  Je mettrai une inimitié entre toi et la femme » - et condamné à procréer, à transformer la terre, toujours astreint au patient et douloureux « travail du négatif » (k ± ).

Le my the du péché originel consacre la volonté du moi d’assumer sa mégalomanie constitutionnelle : si le moi n’est qu’images, mirage ou collage et ramassis d’histoires, il est fatal qu’il cherche dans la culpabilité d’être et de désirer un centre de gravité à la mesure de l’importance qu’il se donne. Sa majesté le moi se nourrit d’une faute imaginaire pour se donner du poids. Mais ce poids est plus lourd à porter que tous les autres. Aussi rêve-t-il qu’on l’en débarrasse, qu’un autre le porte à sa place, qu’o n l’aime, enfin !

« Car là où l’amour s’éveille, périt le moi, ce sombre despote ».

Muhammad Ibn Muhammad, cité par FREUD.


1. Communication présentée à la journée d’Etude du Centre d’Etudes Pathoanalytiques (CEP) à Louvain-la-Neuve, le 31 janvier 1998. Ce texte reprend sans modification notable la synthèse conclusive de notre thèse de Doctorat en Psychologie, défendue à l’Université de Liège en mai 1976 : « Figures du moi : Szondi, Rorschach et Freud ». Nous nous proposions alors d’étudier, dans leur éclairage réciproque, les correspondances entre les données du Szondi et celles du Rorschach, sur base d’une population de 568 sujets pour lesquels nous disposions d’un test de Rorschach et de dix profils szondiens, recueillis dans la population liégeoise entre 1968 et 1973.

2. C'est BLEULER qui, en 1911, rebaptisant du nom de schizophrénie (psychose-de-clivage) la démence précoce de KRAEPELIN, introduit le concept de clivage au centre de la réflexion psychopathologique. On omet généralement de signaler que BLEULER ne concevait pas la Spaltung comme un mécanisme spécifique de la schizophrénie, mais comme un phénomène physiologique repérable jusque chez le sujet normal, et fonctionnant seulement de façon exagérée chez le schizophrène.

3. Bien que toute la démarche freudienne postule implicitement la division du sujet d'avec lui-même comme une donnée de base du fonctionnement psychique, ce n'est que tardivement, dans les articles sur le Fétichisme (1927) et Le Clivage du moi dans le processus de défense (1938) que FREUD fait nommément allusion au processus de clivage, en relation avec la perversion et la psychose. Il avait toutefois déjà utilisé la notion de « Spaltung » à l’orée de son œuvre, en 1893, pour désigner le clivage entre le rêve et la veille où il voyait d’ailleurs le modèle de la dissociation proprement hystérique. C’est Mélanie KLEIN qui devait conférer au clivage sa force conceptuelle décisive en le situant à l’aube de la vie psychisue , dans la dissociation primordiale entre le « Böse » et le « Gute».

4. Nous pensons, avant tout, à Mélanie KLEIN, qui fait intervenir le clivage comme mécanisme de défense originaire, spécifiant l'état premier du psychisme comme  « schizoparanoïde », et à Jacques LACAN, pour qui le Moi est une instance imaginaire,  « moitié du sujet, et pas nécessairement la bonne ».

5. S. Freud (1932). Les diverses instances de la personnalité. Troisième des Nouvelles Conférences.

6. La réaction SchO ± ne se maintient pas (dans une série de plusieurs profils elle se succède rarement à elle-même) et s'accompagne au Rorschach d'une productivité faible et médiocre ; ces sujets paraissent sidérés devant la tâche imposée ou bien se montrent peu intéressés; ils donnent peu de réponses humaines, peu de réponses mouvement et beaucoup de réponses anatomiques, signe de la mauvaise qualité de leur image corporelle.

La réaction Sch ± O, par contre, se maintient très bien et s'accompagne au Rorschach d’une productivité élevée dont les caractéristiques principales sont les suivantes :

1) type d'appréhension G D dd Dbl , révélant une prédilection pour tout ce qui est concret, et une volonté de prendre pied activement dans le réel;

2) les G sont du type secondaire supérieur.

3) grande variété des contenus, nombreuses réponses "objet".

- abondance de réponses "sexe".

- production de kinesthésies de tous les types (d'extension, de flexion,

statique) et, non rarement, de kinesthésies très particulières en ce sens qu’elles "racontent une histoire" - voir l’exemple infra - et traduisent de ce fait une manière spécifique d'intégrer la dimension temporelle.

7. Nous assimilons cette assomption à p+ mais nous ne la faisons pas correspondre pour autant à l’imago spéculaire seulement. Nous pensons que celle-ci ne peut se maintenir qu’étayée par l’identification primaire au père de la préhistoire personnelle, dont dérive l’instance de l’ « Idéal du Moi ». S. Freud, « Le moi et le ça », GW, 13, p. 259.

8. Au Rorschach, les réponses « miroir, fusion et morcellement » qui signent l’importance de la question identificatoire et des préoccupations concernant l’intégrité du corps propre se rencontrent principalement chez les sujets projectifs et inflatifs : + -, o -, ± -, - +, + +, o + (p.01 au test du chi²).

9. Szondi propose le terme di"Intronegation" pour désigner le processus spécifique à l'oeuvre chez le moi obsessionnel ( ± o) : nous traduisons ici par valorisation (k+) du négatif (k-). C’est, par excellence, la réaction du "moi-qui-travaille". C'est aussi la réaction typique du travail de deuil dans la phase d'ambivalence où s’équilibrent les tendances à idéaliser l'objet (k+) et à le dévaloriser (k-).

10. Le moi « pathique » est celui qui, assumant le travail du négatif producteur du concept, s’affronte sans relâche aux questions posées par les verbes spécifiquement pathiques : devoir, pouvoir, vouloir. C’est dire que le conflit, typiquement « obsessionnel » entre le moi et le surmoi est au centre de la problématique existentielle d’un sujet pour qui la nécessité d’exister, précisément, se pose en permanence

11. Sous-titre qui se soutient de la confusion, introduite par BLEULER lui-même, entre l'autisme du schizophrène le plus régressé (+-) et l’ésotérisme des poètes, des philosophes et des religieux (-+).

12. La réaction Sch +- s'accompagne au Rorschach des caractéristiques suivantes : R très bas, F+% très bas, F% élevé, mode d'appréhension G syncrétique, absence de réponses H et K, contenus froids, dévitalisés (neige, glace, pierres ... ), et détruits, type de résonance intime coarté.

(Continuation de 12) La réaction Sch -+ entraîne par contre : R élevé, F+% normal, F% très bas, mode d'appréhension G primaire combiné supérieur, nombreuses réponses H et K (surtout K de danse), contenus mutilés plutôt que détruits, type de résonance intime extratensif dilaté, tonalité chaude et exaltée de l'humeur.

13. La réaction Sch k – p - entraîne au Rorschach :

R bas ( £ 12), F%, F+% et Ban % élevés, absence de H et K, TRI coarté ou extratensif.

La réaction Sch k+ p+ s'accompagne de :

R très élevé ( > 30), F%, F+% et Ban % bas, Orig % élevé, nombreuses réponses H et K, TRI dilaté, souvent ambiéqual ou introversif.

14. "Personnellement, écrit SZONDI, je n'ai jamais rencontré dans mon expérience de psychothérapeute un sujet affirmatif qui se soit converti pour longtemps à la grisaille et au renoncement qui sont le lot de l'homme de la rue"

15. "Dans la phase projective (p-), l’homme n'a pas encore d'idéal, dans la phase négative (k-), il n'en a plus" (Szondi, Ich-Analyse, p. 463).

16. Guy Rosolato . In « La relation d’inconnu ». Paris, Gallimard, 1978.

© 1996-2002 Leo Berlips, JP Berlips & Jens Berlips, Slavick Shibayev