L. Szondi

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Dear reader,

10 02 04, Alfaz del Pi, Costa Blanca, Spain


Herewith follows the translation of the articles of Dr. H. J. Ringger about the

Part 1:Szondi Profiles of Five Year Old Boys”and

Part 2:“Szondi age norms between 21 - 90 Y”.


Although I tried to keep exactly to the original text I sometimes have been forced to take some liberties in order to make the article more readable. Especially as I expect that it will be mostly read by many students living outside Europe who only know Szondi by way of self studies.


The original German text, that I scanned in, I sent already some weeks ago  to some of you. However due to some problems during the transfer,  this corrected scanned German text never seems to have arrived in perfect order. I apologize.


With the assistance of my Spanish friend Atti I hope moreover to translate this article  into Spanish. I think Ringger’s study is an important contribution to more knowledge about the Szondi test. In this connection I suggest you have also a look at the information about Prof. Borg’s book which I published in my latest newsletter on www.szondiforum.com.


I would appreciate if you confirm the reception of this email.

Your editor, Leo Berlips.



Hansjörg Ringger

Avenue du Devin-du-Village27

1203 Geneva - Suisse


PART 1.Szondi Profiles of Five Year Old Boys


From where – To where?  “During development”

This article concerns a group of 20 Five year old boys, registered in 1953/54, USA, NY,  in a " public school, middle class ", by E. Fancher. The test material was given to us 1997.  It is in the Zürich archives, together with the computation of the factor tendencies and - which is rare with the test in the USA - with the computations of the vector pictures.  It concerns boys during their transition in their “infantile Puberty” (Szondi) from their third to the fourth Y to latency (6-10/12. Y).


This article concerns the question: From where – To where and in what respect we can give some references. We undertake this based on our knowledge of the development trend, as it was presented in the publication:  ” The vector pictures during development, 3-20 Y ”. (Mitteilungsblattern „Die Vektorbilder im Entwicklungsverlauf (3-20 Y)"

We use the numeric facts, given to us by E. Fancher for a short “reading excursion”.

A)              Die Faktortendenzen

Sh+ (70) s + (65)

Pe (40) hy- (45);  P e + (30) hy 0 (30)

Schk - (40) p - (60); k 0 (30) p 0 (30)

Cd 0 (35) m – 50); d + 30, d - (30)


In comparison with the „ classical latency profile " we find that: 

1. The ( hy -) has not yet the power of the latency.

2.   neither the tendency ( k - ) 

3.  The ( e 0 ) and (e + ) are still equivalent strongly

4.  The (h +) the and (s +) reactions are already importantly stronger than in the 3 - 4  year old group; however will still increase in strength, with a simultaneous reduction of the symptom factors ( ±, 0 ), particularly in the factor ( s ). 


As for 1 and 2: 

The domestication, the „taming“ has not yet arrived at the strength of  the latency as for control of the affects ( hy - ) or drives  ( k - ). It reaches  from 7/8 Years to 80 Years: 50-60%,  here 42,5 %.



Latency profile:/ + + / • - / - - / •- /

(The two points mean that none of the four choice reactions dominates; which is typically for the factors (e) and (d) - which are environmental unstable - in the seven year old ones, partly even inlater personality development (1960;  297)



The Vector pictures,their strength (respectable status) N = 20; 


In the S vector:

1 profile S++,  11 out of 20,  S + 0,  2.

The  S + + pictures dominate together with the pronounced  weaker S + 0.  These are the two dominating S  pictures up to 80. J.  S ++ will still increase during the latency.                     


In the P vector  0 -, 6; + 0,  3 ;  - 0, 2.

Still dominates fear:  The tendency to hide  P 0 -, is accompanied by the fear of conscience P + 0;  still no trace of the Abelbild.


In the Sch Vector Sch - - , 7;  + - , 3 ;  0 0 , 3 ;  - 0, 2.

Nine latency pictures (Sch - -, - 0. Adjustment and repression ;  but still 9 early- childlike Ego pictrures).  The number of latency pictures will later still increase. 


In the C vector C 0 -, 5; + - , 3; / - - , - 0,  + 0  all 2 /. Here already dominates the, for latency characteristic, tendency to distance one self:

C 0 -, + -), to repel the need to be hold and being taken care of ( 0 - ), together with the urge for extension of contact ( d+ ).  The factor tendency ( m - ) will become still stronger. 


An example of 

The Combination  of the vector pictures:

(20 old boys, 1 profile registered)

Within the contact vector the 20 vector pictures were divided in 5 ( or 3) groups (1947;  263, 200). Showing five ways of „Connecting to the World ". 



1 a) 


Happy  connection                  

Unhappy connection

1 x

6 x     together 12


2.  a)


loyal connection            unfaithfull connection


6x together      12



Problematic, uncertain connection

1 x



The experiencing of contact takes to a large extent place in the section “faithful and unfaithfulness” , secondary within the range of the unhappy (unpleasant ) type of connection. 


By way of these combinations one gets a detailed picture within the respective impulse vector. (see:  “Combination of the Vector pictures”).  Here the faithful and the unfaithfulness connection show the same strength.  The unhappy (unpleasant) connection (1 b) is a typical age picture for a relationship that  is strongly controlled by the tendency „to take distance“ ( m - ) by the urge, not to be protected and to be taken care of. (With the 12 or the 20 Year old, the need to connect will be manifested in quite different Vectors).


Another example:

The combination of the vector pictures within the Sexual vector (1947;  185, 260). 

There dominate the pictures: Sensual Love, terrestrial Eros " (11x S + +;

2x S + 0; 1x S 0 +) together with  a small group with „inter- or bisexual forms of love "(4 x). The latest results correspond here in this group of boys a partial existsting immaturity.  For a more exact analysis (of this immaturity) the test profiles have to be examined if there exist - or not exist –  Oedipus profiles (in the Front- and Depth profiles). 


List of the vector pictures: 

By E. Fancher, 1956; N=20, 1 profile taken up 53/54, the USA, NY. 20








h                  s

e                      hy

k                p

d                  m


5                  6




- -









+ -­





0 - 

























 - ±




































PART 2.The Szondi Registrations of adults. ( 21 – 90 Y).

A Contribution to the Szondi Test

Hans Jörg Ringger


1. Sources and Literature data referring to development:  L Szondi:  1952, the life curves tables NR XXI and XXIII, 5,280, 281. -

2.  Registration of the test profiles in Hungary 1937-1340, for the 3 -  20th Y., 

      n = 925;  for the 21st – 90 Y. n = > 1000 (1947;176) - Whether all of these data are outdated must be questioned elsewhere. 


Note: Szondi differentiates between the beginning of the high age (61-70 Y.), High age (71-80 Y.) and (81-90 Y.), in German the ”Greisenalter."  Editor.


The test registrations regarding development, until the ages 81 - 90 Y. were already examined from different perspectives. They were also used for the description of the development between the 3rd. and 20th. Y (see the following Table of Contents). The results of these investigations were often only indicated by numbers, in percentage or by factor tendencies and vector combinations, without referring to the meaning and contents. The reason for this was based on the acceptance that the reader was already familiar with the exact meanings of these indications, letters and numbers.




1.  The third decade, the "occupational  age" (21 - 30th Y.)

2.  The four different censorship factors (21 - 90 Y.)

3.     The strength of the Drive- and Affect control. (The" Domestication" tendencies, 

      (21 - 90 Y.)

4.  The Old Age: 

a) The changes in the factor (e)

b) The contact tendencies (m +, m -)

c) The strength of the vector registrations in the Sexual vector.

5.  Two vector registration during the process of Ego development (Sch - - ) and

     (Sch + +)

6. The Socialization tendencies (e + ) and ( m + ), 21 - 90 Y.

7. Finishing notes referring to Socialization and Sublimation.

8  Two remarks to close this article.



One speaks, when teaching or referring to the fate-psychological development of the 16-20 Y old about an " Ideal picture" of a human person. In other words about a development and maturity that never is completely reached by the individual (and neither in research groups). 


The experimental base of this Ideal picture is based on the processes for which the term  ”Reversal (Turn around movement) was introduced (see:  "Schematic presentation of the development stages”).  That what characterizes these development processes, is that the four basic functions of a complete impulse show a reversal movement during development as specific opposite vector pictures. Partially this is also true for the way the division can take place.


 This happens in such a way that the four basic functions of the complete impulse show themselves at a certain time on the Front stage (VGP). This means can be mobilized and accumulated.  Some earlier, others only toward the end of development. 


At the age among 16 - 20 Y., the four opposite elementary need tendencies can, accordingly to internal and outside situations, be mobilized, accumulated and eventually be discharged.  This however only theoretically because ”ideal maturity” is only partly reached.  Environment and Disposition influence either in positive or negative sense the development processes.


1.  The third decade(21-30 Y);  the Adult or the “Age of the occupational choice”. 

1947:  280.  281;  1952.  95-103


Unique results and calling for attention:

The ethical censorship (e+) dominates, likewise the longing for mutual support (m+); both tendencies reach their maximum with 40% and 46%.  The factors (e+ and m+) both represent socialization tendencies and are characteristic for this time of development.  However, the ideal mental censorship (p +) and the ideal love for others ( h -) never dominate, they reach however their highest point in the third decade:  (p + 28%; 

h – 24%) during development.


The reciprocating (reversing) motions in the average population can thus only be seen by  the tendencies (e+) and (m+).  Maximum values - without reversal - reach however in this decade (h - , 24%; p + 28%; k+, 17%)


The third decade has a special meaning in the life process.  In the teaching of Pedagogue one mentions sometimes that ”to become a Person" means recognizing responsibility in a collective. In vocational regard in the sense of recognizing one’s own interests. This stage of responsibility and motivation is reached approximately around 25 Y.


The Szondi test,  ”means " obviously something likewise. But it shows it as numbers, percentage and proportions.  Szondi calls this age section also, the "Age of the Occupational choice". 


The unique and Factor tendencies and Vector  combinations that call for attention in:



The vector pictures (S + +) and (S + 0) dominate in the third decade.  Both pictures have dominated since the 8th Y, in the third place appears  (S + -). In contrast appears the opposite figure (S - -), humanized sexuality with the 19 Y. old ones only in the third place with (S - -) 14% and in the third decade with only 10%.  Furthermore it is to be mentioned that in the third decade the rather rare need tendency (h -) reaches its maximum value (24%).  It decreases then slowly and falls after the 60th Y. down to 9% and then on 1% and 2%. 


The collective love for humanity (h -) is the most rarely activated factor tendency of the four tendencies of the complete Sexual impulse (S). 

A slight increase of S - - and of ( h - ) are the fragments in the Sexual vector, which can be during reversal movements in this period (20 - 30 Y.) 



The picture  of Abel, (P - + ) with 27%; dominates clearly in the age of  ”occupational choice" (3rd decade),  followed by ( P 0 -, Fear 16%;  P - - , Panic 10% and keep the same order still in the fourth decade.)


The Abel picture then loses is first place and disappears from the 60th. Y on.

The ethical conscience tendency (e+) and the age picture (P+ -) dominate thus during four  decades.  At the age (61 - 90 Y) the "rough"  affect tendencies (e -) have to be neutralised and made less dangerous in laborious ways.(see very high age, Greisenalter). 



To remember is that:  Sch - - (adjustment) is the dominating Ego picture between the

5th - 90th Y.  The reversal of the Sch - - to Sch + + appears only in the third decade, (with only 7% and only at the 4th. place.)  The average human being in us remains, beside the continuous Sch - -,  Adjustment; to a large extent fixed in a state of Ego inhibition:  Sch - + (with 13 %).


There are some indications that there appear, in the adolescents and in the third decade, some signs of Ego- and Object idealizations (k+, p+).


To mention remains: the tendency (p+;  mental censorship, becoming conscious) never dominates the opposite tendency (p -) neither during the development - nor during the life process.  It reaches its maximum in the third decade with (p+) = 28%. (Already the 31st - 40 Y old have only 14.6%). 


Remarkably are the two early childlike Ego pictures Sch 0 -  and Sch + -. Their percentage in the process of development is decreasing from:  29, 18, 19, 9.  7, 0  until (17th - l8) Y).  They disappear then between the 17th until 30 Y. From here on they become again apparent. 



 In the third decade the following Sch pictures dominate:  Sch - -  (28 %), Sch - + (13 %),

Sch - 0 (9%). The infantile Ego pictures disappear. (In this phase dominate :  Adjustment, inhibition, displacement and Ego- and Object Idealisations.)



Contact vector: 

Here exist the largest concordance between the Hungarian and the other material as for developmental trends.  In the Hungarian the reversal, in the group of the 17-18 Y old,  changes from: 


C +-, C 0 - / to / C - +, C 0 + . This means that there is an equilibrium in this group between the tendencies ”to leave”, ”to distance oneself” (0 - ), and ”the active searching for” (C + -) and the opposite tendencies (C - +, 0 +) ”to be loyal” and ”to attach”.


Then, in the third decade dominate C 0 +, C - +, with 33% (against 23%).  Also in the fourth decade loyalty and mutual support still dominate with 28% to 23%; then however in the " years of change " (41-60 Y) the relationship turns around again:  "Disloyalty” pictures dominate during these next two decades.  The rare tendency (d - ) of renunciation, exceeds the 10% from puberty and get its highest points in the 3rd decade with 25%, but then constantly decreases in the 80th Y old group to 8%.


2.  The censorship factors (e +, hy -, k -, p +) during development (21 - 90 Y).


The ethical censorship ( e + ) dominates the opposite basic tendency ( e - ), up to 60 Y, (It has its highest point in the third decade).  The morality censorship ( hy - ) dominates with the same strength (50%), from the 5 Y until the 90 Yth. old. 


 The censorship based on Reason, the material interest factor ( k - ) dominates also with more than 50% until the 40th Y and with a slight increase up to 90th Y.  Accordingly the connection of the two censorship factors, which control the affects and drives (hy -, k -) dominate  with the same strength during further development.


However the ethical censorship (e + ) loses in 60 Y its domination (in relation to e -). In the average population the ideal mental censorship ( p + ) never comes to dominate. It reaches its highest points with the 17 – 20th Y old (22%) and in the third decade (28%).



 An example to show with which regularity the Szondi test " functions ":

During development the frequency of the tendency ( p+ ) which aim is to enlarge consciousness and to build up the Ego Ideal amounts to: 


9 -12 J










61- 70J


71 - 80 J


81-90 J.













The censorship factors in the record of the average population: 


The ethical (Super Ego, editor) censorship ( e + ) and the ideal mental censorship ( p + ) tendencies develop from pre-puberty and puberty on.  The mental censorship (p +) becomes only slightly visibly in the third decade.  The material interest and censorship by reason ( k - ) 50%, increase by some percentage at high age (71-90 Y), while the ethical censorship decreases strongly.

The morality censorship ( hy - ) remains with its 50% constantly the same, starting at the latency age (9-12 Y) unto the 70th Y. 



The strength of the tendencies in percent always refers to the 4 reactions

+, -, ±, 0; of these the two positive (+) and the two negative (-) reactions are the two parts of the whole 4 basic tendencies of each total impulse. Together 4x4 basic tendencies.  (For example: the four basic tendencies in the vector Sch are:  k - , k + , p - , p+). 


3. The strength of the Affect and Drive control, (hy - k -) during development.


(The " Domestication " period or how to become civilized).

The restraining factors start and keep nearly the same strength from the 5th Y until old age (71 – 90 Y). They are composed by the outside morality censorship, (hy -)

- hiding feelings, affect expression and fantasies ( hy - ) and the material interest censorship, using reason and adaptation to reality ( k - ). This can be seen as well in single profiles as in serial registrations.



Hy -

k -

5 - 6



9 - 12



17 - 50




The two changes in this field during the entire life process are:

  1. Toward the end of latency, 9-12 Y and around the 13 – 16 Y period, the morality censorship, hiding (hy -) exceeds the censorship of reason (k -). Both censorship activities remain on the same level from the 17th Y until the 50th Y (50-55%). 
  2. The opposite is seen when one becomes older than 50 Y, especially when arriving at high age (60th- and after the 70th Y). One becomes more ”reasonable” and more inclined to deliberately suppress desires and needs or deny them. The result being a gradually increased intentional Ego restriction (k - ) or adjustment

      (k - p -).



The two domestication factors, causing censorship by the " outside " moral” and the material interests (hy -, k -) can be taken to be of fundamental importance in the process of human civilization. (Because of their taming- and adjusting qualities). 


The two other censor tendencies, the " internal " ethical conscience censorship (e +) (Super Ego activity. editor) and the development of the Ego ideals, the Ideal mental censorship (p +) seem to presuppose the activities of (hy – and k -) Domestication.  How much strength these factors must have can here only be mentioned as a question. 

In this connection one has to consider the weakness of (k +), the ”Object- Ideal formation. (The lowest form of restraint (hy -, k - ) was observed in the registrations of the Hungarian " affect murderers ". See American material, Susan Deri.) 


4.  About the 70 Th. Y age level.



Szondi differentiates:  The beginning of the high age (61-70 Y) and high age (71-80 Y) and very high age = in German: "der Greisenalter” (81-90 Y). 

During the whole life process dominates the tendency for personal love ( h + ) over all the other (16 = 4 x 4) elementary tendencies.  It rises from 46% at (3 -4 Y) to over 80% at the 9th Y, keeps then during many decades higher then 60% and finally makes its largest "jump" at the 71st Y, with more than 80% (as in the latency period). 


Likewise dominate during the whole life process, together with (h+), the person centred tendency ( p - ), the need for participation, to become one with the other, to share emotionally with the other.

However in contrast it can also mean the opposite: a tendency to distrust, to be suspicious, to put the blame on others, (accusations).


This tendency (p -) appears at:  3 – 8 Y with 50 – 60%. The lowest point, which is noticeable, is at 17 – 20 Y.  It rises then again and shows around 61 – 66 Y:  82%. 

The two need tendencies (h +) and (p -) seem to belong together. They are the two strongest elementary tendencies of the whole Drive system (4x4 tendencies of the 4 complete impulses).  In contrast is the lowest potential, during the whole life process, shown by the tendency (h -) love for humanity and partly by (d -) loyalty, disposition to renunciation.


Three more tendencies, specific to higher age are to be mentioned:

a) The second peak position of  (m +),

b) The partial loss of (e+) and

c) The continuous, “large constancy” of the affect and drive control (hy - k -) with the already mentioned increase of (k -) into the very high age. (Greisenalter (81-90 Y).


The highest percentage in the group of the 70 – 90 Y’s reach the need tendencies:

 (h +)  83%; (p -) 82%, (k -) 64%;  (m+) 50%. 




The need tendencies ( h + ) tenderness focused on one person and (p - ) the need for participation are with each 82% the most powerful pair of tendencies. It exceeds all other need tendencies which present themselves during development.

The longing for love and feeling, the need to belong together, to be united with the other loved one in individual bounds is joined from the 20th to the 90th Y. by the (m + ) tendency to be supported and accepted by the other. It reaches its maximum, the highest percentage with ( m +, 53%, 55%, 46%). /the first highest pointed of ( m + ) was reached in the third decade with 46%/.


 In Szondi’s work one rarely observes any remarks about the end of life. One find however a rather pessimistic note referring to the interesting and detailed description peripilies of the Ego (Ichschicksale), the projective and to the introjective  identification  (1947, (page 180-184). 



It is often accepted that with birth and death a similar process is carried out. The author Hermann Hessen is of the opinion that :  "Getting more mature one becomes ever younger ", lnselverlag:  Insel, publishing house. (it. 2857).  With other authors one finds the conception that the way to death is going back to birth.(Martin Heidegger a.o.)


Seen from the Szondi test the fact of getting older, in the sense mentioned above, can be interpreted in the following way. That what can save humans at the age of decreasing vitality from developing hate, distrust and suspicion are experiences of love, physical affection (h +) and the capacity to feel united in thinking and feeling (p  -).


The Changesin the further life process in the factor (e) and in High Age.


4 a) The strongest affect pictures are during four decades the same:  P+ -, P 0 -, P - -.  The basic tendency (e+) dominates:  40% - 40% - 33% in the 3th. 4th and 5th. decade.  The Abel  (P+ -) reaches its maximum with 27 % in the third decade.


61-90 Y:

The tendency (e -) dominates (e +) around two or three times. In the beginning of high age and very high age (Greisenalter) one is more strongly exposed to the danger of the accumulated " rough affect energies ".  It becomes more difficult to process and to protect oneself from them.

The vector pictures P 0 - and P - - reach here the highest per cent (23% and16%); theyresemble those of the 5 – 10 Y group. Moreover appears in the Greisenalter a somewhat “laborious " reinforcement within the problematic of Abel / Kain:  P+ 0, 14%; P - + 14%.  Never elsewhere the Kain appears with this strength. This corresponds with fig. P + 0  (fear of the Super Ego. Editor) with 8°/0, that likewise not appears anywhere else with thisstrength.The highest number for the pure Kain (P- +) corresponds with the9% in the group of thefour Y old ones. 


The increase of (e -) onto 30 - 40% is probably the cause that in old the affect pictures

P - -,panic;P 0 -, fear; P + 0, Phobia;  reach the highest numbers.  (Indicating internal panic, hiding of the " rough and tender " affects, “Anxiety of being unmasked”, (Beziehungsangst) and “need to compensate” (Wiedergutmachung)  - Super Ego activities. Editor). One does not really become a “Kain”, a bad person as the consequence of the increased tendency of ( e -,30-40%). The analysis of these vector pictures mentioned above in the affect range point out that onein this age reacts uncomfortably and tries to protect oneself against the outbreak of primitive affects.  The mentioned  affect pictures no where else reach this strength during development. 


4 b) The Contact tendencies (m+) and (m -) and the Contact patterns during development.



m +

m -

3 – 4



7 – 8



9 – 12



13 – 16



17 – 20



21  - 30



31 – 60



60 – 90




 ( m +) exceeds ( m - ) in the Adolescence and reaches it’s high point with the 21 - 30 Y old ones with 46 %. It decreases gradually again to 40% and30%; andreaches the second high point in the group of the 60 – 90 Y old ones with 51%.  

The lowest point of (m+) 6 - 8% one find inthe 7 –12 Y group! The5 –10/12 Y is the time for an ongoing long time period of separation from the objects of support (significant persons. Editor).


The Reversal (turning around) of the Vector pictures C + -, C 0 -, to

C 0 +, C - +, during youth and further development.

(Only Hungary material).



C + -, C 0 -

C 0 +, C - 0

17 – 18%



Support and assisting one another.  27%

21 – 30

Years of deciding occupation



31 – 40

Marriage. Family



41 – 60

Years of change




From 61 - 90 Y, at high age and unto very high age (Greisenalter), the two vector pictures

C 0 +, C + +, move to the first place with an average 26% and 16%.

The need “to be not alone” and the tendency ( m + ) increase to 51%, in contrast to the need for separation ( m - ) that decreased to 18%.


In this time the need for a happy relation (C 0 + ) and (C + + ) dominate. The latter disloyal relation  expresses at the same time the need to hold on ( m + ) and at the same time searching for a new one, ( d + ).


Comment: Faithfulness and unfaithfulness are here not norms used in terms of morality. 


4 c) The strength of the vector pictures in the Sexual vector during development.

(21 - 90 J.)  (1947;  281)


21 – 60 Y

S + +,  + 0,  + -

50 – 60%

61 – 70 Y

 ++, + - , + 0


71 – 80 Y

 + +, + 0, + -


81 – 90 Y

+ -, + 0, ++




The 70 - 90-Y reach the same percentage as in latency, the 5 – 12 Y (70 - 80%).  That does not mean that the old persons within this range become childish; it is a retreat into the latency of the sexual range.  Above all increase the pictures  S+ 0 and S + -. The elementary tendency (s+) dominates over the tendency (s -) in the adult and increases nearly two times up to 50  Y. Then appears a rather equivalence of the factors (s +) and (s -).


The tendency ( h +) always stands on the level of 60 - 70 - 80 percent. The need tendency (h -) keeps itself far down, with high points only in the third decade (24%). 


To the sexual vector picture S + +, that dominates all the others,  corresponds within the Ego vector the picture Sch - - (Adaptation). They seem to belong together, and form the base for normality of the average population, together with the factors ( hy - k -), the combination used for suppression of “affects and drives”.


5.  The two strongest vector pictures during development:  Sch - - and Sch + +,


a) The adjustment Sch - -, and b) the " everyday child “.

Szondi calls this Ego picture also "the obedient” (rapportfähige) Ego, the “tamed” Ego or " a general mass reaction ".  It is the most frequent Ego picture from 5 - 90 Y.  Children and those growing up have the lowest: Sch - - (22 %.).   The adults: 32% (a third of the tested persons) and in " high Age”: (60 - 90 J.)  50% (half). 


From the 3rd - 18 Y  (at the age of development) the Ego picture Sch - - adheres with 15 - 25% the first place.  Only exceptionally the pictures Sch - +, Sch - 0 (inhibition and displacement) can overhaul the picture of adjustment (Sch - - ).  See: The factor reactions and vector pictures during development.


There is an exception, which is discussed by Szondi in detail.  With the 3 - 4- Y’s stands the Sch + -, in the first place and not the Sch - -. It belongs thus to the phase of infantile puberty.  The Ego picture + - (21%) is according to Szondi of special importance for the development process of small children. (See:  the following reference:  " The everyday child ", the factor reactions and vector pictures during the development process).  It goes down then with the 5 Y. old ones to 10%. 


From the 4th Y the test results indicates that, during the life process the average human being will tend to become still more an “every day person”  (Alltagsmensch).

He more frequently loses his need to take position (k±) and his need to use his consciousness (p+,  Sch ± +). His ability to Idealisation of his Ego and Objects decrease likewise his tendencies to Introversion (k + p +).


5.  The “adapted” child. (Alltagskind) (1947; 155 - 160; 1952;  422)

The adjustment, the renouncement to use one’s own will and feel omnipotence can in the infant be imprinted by the environment too early and too often.  The child must in someway meet the requirements of parents, school and society on its own terms. According to Szondi the infant learns to repress its requirements for omnipotence, the desire being there all the time (Omnipresence).  Quotation:  (1952;  422): 

“The further Ego and Contact development consist in the general child (Alltagskind) that it first reduces the lntrojected pictures of its parents and only gradually learns that it cannot be omnipotent. It must adapt, this means it has to deny its requirements for omnipotence = ( k -, p - ). In such a way it becomes  - unfortunately often too early - an everyday person without Ideals.  The reaction (k +) decreases, likewise the Ego picture Sch + -, in the latency.  Although it is true that the tendency ( k + ) reaches its highest point in the third decade, 17%, but this has connection with the Ego combination pictures

Sch + +, + 0.


As for the denial or repression of the need for Omnipotence:

The child can absorb such requirements in its playing and daydreaming. There it can   realize them. It can identify itself as well with the demanding child as with the commanding adult. It learns so gradually to negotiate such needs and to do without its inconsiderate desire and will to dispose over others. 


The increasing loss of the factor tendencies of Introjection (k +) and (p +) should also be investigated in connection with the substantial affect and impulse control ( hy -, k - ), the Domestication" that dominates from the fifth Y onto very high Age (Greisenalter) with 50% in the affect and ego vector


(When using the terms " Everyday child " (Alltagskind) and “Infantile humanization " Sch + -, one has to consider the tendencies (k +) and (k -) of the three and four Y old in the Hungarian and American test material.  Susan Deri tested these children in Budapest and New York.  See " The vector pictures during development) 


The vector picture S ++ and the Ego picture Sch - - 

There is a close relationship between Ego picture Sch - -, and the Sexual vector picture S++, both appear nearly in the first place during the whole life process (of 5 - 80 Y ) Szondi writes:  ' The tamed human being (Drillmensch) is not selective but always ready for  sex ” (1960;   155) 


With children the fig. S + + has another meaning.  It is strongest vector S picture with

43 -  46% between the 5th and 12th Y.  After infantile puberty (3 — 4 J.) it has the meaning of the capacity to accumulate and to alloy the two tendencies (h+) and (s+) during the transition to and in the latency. Due to the accumulation and alloying, the symptom factors (0,±) can temporarily decrease themselves.  They will only appear in puberty again.


For the child it refers to a development and learning process (S++, Sch - -).  It learns to alloy the opposite erotic strivings “ Love and aggression and steer themselves mutually ".  (1960;  91).

S + + reaches during maturing (17-18 Y) but only 25%.  It keeps this strength until 70  Y. (S+ +,  24%).  In the very high age (Greisenalter) it ends in the third place (S+ -, 32%;

S +0, 24%; S++ 22%; S 00 8%).


6.  The socialization tendencies (e+) and (m+) during development.

They dominate during three decades their opposite tendencies (e -, m -). Both achieve their highest percent between the 20th and 40th Y, with approx. 40%.  (Something that already begins in the “maturation period” (17 —20 Y with 30%)


In the “years of change”  (41 – 60 Y ) both tendencies decrease and become partly equivalent with (e -) and (m -).  In the years (61 - 90 Y) both tendencies split apart:  then (e -) dominates by far (e +), and (m +) reaches its second high point with over 50%

(C 0 +, + + ) : The need for support  (0 +) , need not to be alone, or (C + + ) but at the same time searching for new contacts ( C + + ).



The socialization tendencies (e+) and (m +) dominate their opposite tendencies. This is true as well at the age of maturation as for the age of occupational choice and partly still in the years of change. However they do not continue to collaborate, due to the fact that (e -) later starts to dominate over (e +).


The high (e -) during the 61 – 90 Y shows an increasing endangerment of the increase of bitterness, disappointment and fear to become alone. This could be the reason for the increase of the demand (m+) for support (C 0 +) or for a multiple contact (C + +), in order to get protection against these dangers.  During the whole development these pictures never reach this strength (together 40% of the 16 potential pictures in one vector.) 


Concluding remarks as for socialization and sublimation


  1. The Socialisation tendencies (e +) and (m +) reign over the preceding opposite tendencies (e -, m -), which before dominated during Childhood and Pre-puberty.  The reversal mostly takes place in Puberty and Adolescence. Their highest point reaches both in the third decade. 


  1. For the Sublimation tendencies the following pictures have to be looked for:

S - -,  S ± -,  S - ± and Sch + +, ± +, + 0, + 0 (- +).

In the general population one find them, but only somewhat understated, in the group of the 17th – 20 Y and in the third decade.


  1. During a test evaluation (above all in individual cases) one can also use the Existence form Nr: 16 and Nr: 17 if looking for Socialization and Sublimation. (Szondi:  1952;  432 test syndromes for the determination of the 17 existence forms ")


Why to present all these details about the development between 21 - 90. Y?

 The attentive reader will be able to experience a surprise with the facts herewith presented.  The test sees often more as we and in certain respects more exact than what we can see.  Sometimes it needs more time, until we can see in a person and describe in words that what w already seized by its sign and number language. 

How is it possible that a calculating procedure, by statements of percent, by showing quantitative increases and reductions, by proportions and their reversal that a computational procedure can refer to something that enriches our thinking? That it points out facts and gives new insights and start new thought processes. One is often bent, to confront such counting to meditative thinking.


However the fact exists:  Due to the knowledge of the multiple changes in the development from the third to the twentieth Y, there exist a knowledge of the development and maturing processes within the four drive vectors.

A knowledge about the appearance of certain factor connections in a profile at certain times and in the range of specific vector pictures, from stage to stage. A knowledge about the changes in the drive profiles that can be reached according to the different age levels.


These changes - in a single case and in group investigations - do not lead all to the desired signs of maturation, neither within the Sexual-, nor in the Affect -, Sch -, or Contact vector. They do not lead to the Ideal personality, maturity and humanity while growing up. Maturity always is only partly reached because environment, social conditions and heritable disposition necessarily intervene, in positive and partly in negative sense, in the development process.  They do this even during the further life process, together with unexpected events and by coincidences, which can lead to confusion and psychological illness.


The research methods used in the interpretation of the test: 

1.               The four censorship factors.

2.               The Socialization and Sublimation tendencies.

3.                The “humanised”" Sexuality.

4.                The Object- and Ideal formation.

5.                The strength of the " Internal " Centre (the driving and affect control)        

6.                The Age-typical vector pictures within each drive vector.

7.                The Blocked factor tendencies.

8.                The most frequent drive classes in development of the life process,

9.                The changes in the mixture and splitting up of the pictures and finally

10.                            The analysis of the existence forms (the Danger Index).


In children, young people and adults all these research possibilities get in the long run their formation and quality by life-historical facts and by what the client makes of them, (die Mitarbeit des Hilfssuchenden). 









© 1996-2002 Leo Berlips, JP Berlips & Jens Berlips, Slavick Shibayev