L. Szondi

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You will find C:
(d-m+)  (d+m-)  (d-m-)  (d+m+)  (d0m+)  (d0m-)  (d0m0)  (d0m±)

(See also, on the Forum: Jean Mélons résumé: Contact Profiles)

There are nine patterns of the (d) and (m) constellations which have to be described briefly, because each of them refers to a characteristic way the subject relates himself to objects of his environment. More variations are discussed separately here than in the case of the P vector because of the special importance of anal and oral character traits in deterinining the person’s social attitudes and his general type of contact with reality. Again, the meaning of the remaining seven C vectorial configurations can be derived from the interpretations of the nine individually described C vector patterns.

As in the previous vectors, the presentation will follow the degree of clarity of the personality characteristics corresponding to the various (d) and (m) patterns.

(Cd-m+) 10

The situation in the C vector is similar to that in the P vector, in that those constellations in which the two factors point into opposite directions actually indicate that the two respective drives operate in the same direction. In the case of (C d-m+), both factors express the need to hold on and cling to an object strongly cathected with libido. One could call this the most “faithful constellation, since the (d-) indicates that the person is attached to one specific object and is not in constant search for new ones (which would be indicated by d+), while the (m+) shows that the need to cling for love and support is accepted. It also shows that there is still a basically optimistic attitude, and the environment is considered in an emotionally positive way as offering possibilities for “oral gratification. Individuals with (d-) and (m+) are fixated to the primary” object in the sense discussed in connection with (d-). Thus it does not necessarily imply an obvious attachment to either of the parents but means that something (a person, an idea, or a thing) is cathected with the same intensity as was the first main object of libido (always the mother or the person who takes the place of the mother). At the same time, when (d-) indicates this strong attachment to a person or idea, the (m+) shows that, whatever the object of this strong libido cathexis is, it is certainly something which can be actually enjoyed and to which it is possible to “cling.” Enjoying and clinging in case of this particular C vectorial configuration, has always a nonagressive and sometimesdepending on the quantity of the (d-) a definitelv passive character.

Individuals who give this pattern do not exert physical effort to assure themselves of the possession of the highly cathected object. In most cases, it is not even a material object but rather a person or an idea, and not infrequently the mere idea of a person, to which they are faithfully attached. Thus holding on to such “objects” of libido does not nccessitate physical action or grabbing but rather an ability to sublimate and to derive enjoyment from nontangible values. This statement is supported by the findings that

· the (d-m+) is discovered rarely in the lower occupational levels and practicallv never in criminals, nor in asocial psychotics. It occurs frequently in fairly wellfunctioning adults, mostly in professional groups to.whom the kind of work they do is more important than the financial gains of the work. In other words these are the persons we usually call “idealistic.

They might experience difficulties in regard to getting outward success, because of the passivity inherent in this configuration, particularly if associated with (s-). They are conservative in the sense of disliking change, and being forced to leave a situation to which they are accustomed is experienced as painful. These reactions follow from the adhesive quality of libidocathexis characteristic for (dm+) individuals. Once an object is really cathected it is practically never given up. Even though there might be no outward signs of adherence between the subject and his object of libido, on closer examination one finds that the attachment is still there and not arly interesting even in a diminished form. And the particular characteristic of these subjects is that such unrealistic attachments are not experienced as serious frustrations, since they are able to derive satisfaction from intangible ideas. To them, the thought of the object has nearly the same emotional value as its possession. This is another illustration of the exaggerated loyalty and high sublimating ability so characteristic of subjects associated with this C vector pattern.

This pattern, as we have said, is rarely found in psychoses. It may be associated with various forms of neuroses because of the basically incestuous fixation implied in its deepest interpretation. However, even in those cases it may be interpreted as indicating a socially positive attitude and satisfactory ethical control. (The d-m+ is frequently associated with e+hy- in the P vector)

The pattern is typically adult; almost unusual if it occurs in children. Its frequency is fairly stable from adolescence to old age. It occurs rarely in childhood, probably because it indicates a sublimated (or transposed) form of attachment to an original “primary” object (the mother or mothersubstitute) which the child still possesses. And a need for attachment so intensive as indicated by (d-m+) can rarely be satisfied in the most realistic normal contact with actual parents.

(Cd+m-) 9

The (Cd+m-) pattern in the C vector is in every way the opposite of (Cd-+m+). It means that there is no intensive attachment to one specific object of libido: rather, the person who yields this pattern eagerly pursues many objects.

· This aggressive search is assumed, on the basis of clinical observations, to be the reaction from forced relinquishment of attachment to the most important “primary” object (the parents).

To these subjects, the specificity of the objects is not nearly so important as the quantity.This configuration indicates definitely activity, and frequently aggression, in contrast to the physical passivity characteristic of the (Cd-+m+). Individuals giving (Cd+m-). are anxious to manipulate and master the objects in their environment; however, the (m-) component indicates that, actually, there is no pleasure derived from all this activity.

(This interpretation needs modification when this C vector pattern is found in children between the ages of six and eight.)

The ((Cd+-m-). indicates a generally realistic attitude toward the world insofar as real objects are considered important, but this materialistic viewpoint is associated with a certain pessimism toward the world as a potential source of enjoyment. The individual is able to secure a number of real objects, but is unable to enjoy them. There is little possibility for sublimated forms of enjoyment in subjects yielding this constellation in the C vector.

In the clinically symptomless population, this pattern is obtained mostly in the lower occupational levels, frequently by unskilled laborers who work hard and without enjoyment, with little opportunity or ability to derive pleasure from things in general except on the most concrete level. Among individuals belonging to higher occupational or professional groups, the pattem is more an indication of depressed mood, and generally, of a tendency actively to accumulate and master objects. When the pattem is associated with (s+), these individuals can be ruthless in pursuit of their goals. Because of the lack of intensive attachment to any one object, person, or idea, these subjects move through their environment more easily, and change more flexibly from one situation to another, than do those who yield the opposite pattern (Cd-m+) in the C vector.

The pathologic significance of the configuration refers first of all to a-social behavior. In any form of crime, usually this is one of the most frequent C vectorial pattern associated with (s+, e-) to yield the typical picture of an analsadistic individual. Moreover, similarity benveen the test reactions of criminals and epileptics has been found in this C vector configuration.

In certain configurations of the total test pattern, when there are reactions indicative of repression (primarily minus hy and minus k), plus d, minus m can occur in conjunction with hysteric symptoms. The psychodynamics underlying this experimental finding refer most probably to the basic asocial attitude of hysterics, and to their inability to form pleasurable object relationships.

The curve of age distribution of (Cd+-m-), points to a trend exactly opposite to the curve of (Cd-+m+), although the absolute frequency in the population of the former is about three times the frequency of the latter. The (Cd++m-) is the most frequent C vectorial configuration given by children from approximately four to nine years of age. From prepuberty on it gradually decreases in frequency, becoming one of the rarest patterns in those beyond the age of sixty.

To recapitulate briefly: this is the age at which, due to external and inner reasons, children are forced to loosen their attachment to the mother and to “stand on their own feet.” It is the period at which they explore the possible use of a number of environmental objects, and acquire skills to manipulate these objects. The wellknown childhood habit of collecting various objects is yet another phenomenon understandable from the attitude implied in ((Cd++m-). Although in this age group the (Cd+m-) pattern does not indicate a socially negative attitude nor a tendency for depression in the sense indicated for adults, it nevertheless most probably reflects the fact that children of this age do feel lonesome and to a certain extent frustrated “orally” as a part of the physiologic process of growing up. The beginnings of “gang” formation, around the age of seven, which usually has a slight antisocial tinge, though still in a playful way, may also be regarded as a reaction against the world of frustrating adults, which fits well into the interpretation of the corresponding (Cd+m-).


The (Cd-m-) pattern in the C vector occurs rather infrequently in the general population. Nevertheless it demands discussion because it corresponds to a type of personality so clearly definable. It indicates fixation on a certain object (d-) with simultaneous negation of the need to cling to this object (m-). The result of this inner contradiction is a restless tension and a general feeling of detachment from reality. This detachment does not necessarily result in pathologic lack of contact with reality, although (Cd-m-) is a relatively frequent configuration in acute psychoses.

· If the rest of the test pattern reveals a good balance between the factors, (Cd-m-) can mean that the person, subjectively detached from everyday reality, is able to live on a “higher” plane of humanistic idealism.

However, this interpretation is valid only when this pattern of the C vector in conjunction with (h-s-) and there is a (+) tendency in both factors of the Sch vector, (Sch++). Individuals yielding this unusual combination of reactions are deeply unrealistic, but rational, in that intellectually and practically they act in accordance with the expected laws of reality, while emotionally they reject these laws together with the conventional scale of values. Thus, within the limits of reality, they are basically nonconforming and autistic. The unconscious psychodynamics behind this attitude concern a reconciliation to a frustrating situation in which there is realization of the fact that the loveobject which is still allimportant is not available, while there is no attempt to search for a substitute.

Subjects in this group have an ascetic quality of selfdenial and a high tolerance for frustration. In contrast to the optimistic attitude corresponding to (Cd-m-+) - whereby the individual also, basically fixated on a loveobject not attainable is nevertheless able to transpose this love to an abstract level and derive enjoyment from this sublimation -, subjects with the (Cd-m-) configuration deny the importance of enjoyment altogether. Under unusual circumstances, this disinterest in pleasure might give these individuals unusual strength in regard to selfsacrifice, bearing out the wellknown signs of exaggeration characteristic of all behavior resulting from reaction formation.

As we have mentioned, this configuration in the C vector is found frequently in psychoses, particularly in the beginning stages, indicating immediate loss of contact with reality. (Cd-m-) forms the greater part of an important Syndrome in the test, which usually is referred to as the block of irreality: (d-, m-, p-, s-) .

Among the neurotic symptoms, diffuse anxiety occurs most frequently with this pattern in the C vector.

The curve of age distribution of this configuration shows two peaks: the first, which is the lower of the two, occurs in young children; the second, in adulthood. This pattern is least frequent in adolescence and in old age. In young children, the pattern usually appears as part of the “block of irreality, corresponding to the age of infantile autism, which is an expected phase of development. In adults, it is a sign of irrealistic resignation. The rareness of this C vectorial pattern in adolescents is understandable, since adolescents definitely have outgrown the stage at which autistic witlidrasval from frustrating reality is permissible under normal circumstances, but have not reached the age at which they need to resort to arbitrary selfdenial. The psychic energy needed in order to maintain the anticathexes necessary for the latter attitude explains the observation that elderly people do not reveal this energyconsuming mechanism.


In contrast to the irrealistic social attitude characteristic of the (Cd-m-) configuration in the C vector, the (Cd+m+) configuration could be called the “block of reality,” (Cd+-m+) being the two most important component factors. This pattern indicates that the material objects of the world, as well as interpersonal relationships, are valued highly. The behavior of these subjects is apparently most sociable, yet subjectively they experience difficulties because too many objects (in the sense of material objects as well as person or ideas) of the environment seem equally desirable. Expressed in Lewinian terms: there is a conflict situation in which the person has to choose between two or more objects representing equally positive valence, so that frustration is unavoidable since in actuality only one of these objects can be chosen. This multiorientation of the libido explains the greediness of these subjects in regard to securing more and more objects, and establishing more and more relationships, since anal and oral needs equally are accepted. Objects are wanted so that they may be mastered (d+) as well as enjoyed (m+). This pattern in the C vector accompanies a definite tendency for competitiveness, since the possessions of others are desired as fully as the already owned possessions. Yet this tendency for envy and insatiability does not have antisocial manifestations of the kind described in connection with (Cd+m-), since in the configuration under discussion the (m+) is a kind of safeguard against harinful, overtly aggressive behavior. Rather, subjects associated with this configuration are overeager and anxious not to miss anything in life; although they might experience the desire to step over others, the socially positive qualities implied in (m+), which psychologically consist of need to be loved and to win support, keep this desire within socially acceptable limits. Even the term greediness in these individuals must often be understood as primarily non materialistic, since it is often manifested in attempts to accumulate a great quantity of knowledge in diverse fields.

· Tendency to acquire the skills of several occupations or to change professions frequently, is characteristic of subjects in this group.

The pathologic significance of this C vector pattern refers mostly to the feeling of insufficiency inherent in the mechanism which is the consequence of the tendency to undertake more tasks than can be carried out in reality. This can result in various neurotic symptoms which have the common characteristics of hyperactivity and difficulty in concentrating, rather than the withdrawal associated with (Cd-m-). In primarily sexual disturbances, this C pattern is found frequently in bisexual individuals, in whom multiorientation of the libido implies that persons of cither sex are cathected with equal intensity. The result of this bisexual orientation is, also, the feeling that no object can yield gratification by itself, while simultaneous attachment to several objects necessarily implies frustrations of another sort.

The (Cd+m+) m is found most frequently in old age, and least frequently in children. In old age, it might reflect the regressive disintegration of sexuality into its pregenital component drives of anal and oral needs. It also corresponds to the concern in elderly individuals about their relationship to objects (including persons) in their environment rather than the structuring of their own egos.


The (Cd0m+) constellation can be understood on the basis of the configuration just discussed if to use a mathematical metaphor from the previous configuration we subtract the interpretation corresponding to the plus d component. The remainder, the (Cd0m+) pattern contains the elements of the sublimated oral needs (m+) without being accompanied by a tension in the area corresponding to the need for a possessive, anal type object relationship (d0). This lack of any tension, in the (d+) as well as in the (d-) direction, in the area corresponding to anal needs accounts for the characteristic passivity of subjects with (Cd0m+) toward objects in their environment. (It should be remembered that in the case of any open reaction "no tension” refers to lack of tension indicated on the test profile as compared to other test factors in which tension is indicated by the number of choices, and not to an absolute lack of tension in the particular area of the personality.)

The (d0) indicates that there is no search for new objects, nor is the person attached strongly to the primary object or to any other object which might have taken its place during the course of development. The lack of strong attachment to any object, indicated by the draining of the d factor, refers only to the lack of the anal type of interest in objects; in other words, there is no drive in regard to actively manipulating and controlling objects, but this does not imply the lack of the "oral" need for objects. Quite the contrary is true for persons who give (Cd0m+) namely, there is a strong need to cling to objects for love, support, and enjoyment (tension in m+). These are individuals who can be described in psychoanalytic terms as "oral characters."

Depending on the intensity (loadedness) of the (m+), this oral need to cling to objects can manifest itself in socially most desirable forms of optimistic and non-aggressive attitudes, or in cases in which the plus m is strongly loaded the clinging to an object might acquire a quality of anxiousness, a fear about the possibility of losing the object. This anxiousness is different from the worrying about the possibility of losing an object as described in connection with the (d+), in which it referred to an anxiety about losing a possession or losing control over a part of the environment; in other words, to anxiety about inability to assert one’ s strength and power. In anxiety associated with high tension (+!!), there is no question of power involved; the person is simply anxious about losing the psychological support, which the object of his libido has meant to him. These subjects are frustrated in their oral needs, but instead of reconciling themselves to this frustration, they constantly try to find ways to gratify this need, and the fact that they give (m+), and not (m-), shows that they are able to derive enjoyment from oral types of object relationship even though they might feel that the amount is insufficient. In social contact, these subjects are pleasant and, because of the realization and acceptance of their own need for love and support, they are also able to identify themselves with the role of the donor of such emotions. Because they lack energy to secure specific objects (d0), individuals with this C vector pattern are rather inclined to cathect those objects in their environment, which are easily available, and once cathected, they cling to them. Once an objectrelationship has been established, they experience a certain inertia against any change in the situation; however, if the change is unavoidable, new relationships similar to the previous relationship, are established rather easily, owing to the inherent need of these individuals to find objects ("object" always implying persons) to cling to, and their basically hedonistic attitude in that they want to enjoy the world. The frustration of subjects with (Cd0m+) is low. They do not want to suffer and usually they are able to structure their lives in a way that actually they do not need to. Their usually good capacity for sublimation is one of the main reasons that even under apparently unfavorable circumstances, they are still able to derive some enjoyment, since enjoyment on this sublimated level does not depend on the possession of material objects or on realistic attachments to persons, but rather on the possession of abstract ideals or values which can not be lost by changing external circumstances.

Whether or not such abstract values were cathected originally because of an underlying fear of exposure to frustrations if the libido were to be invested in more tangible objects which could be easily lost is an open question, but by all means a conceivable possibility. The genetic development of these subjects usually shows that they did get much love in childhood, which might account not only for their basically optimistic attitude in later life, but also for their sometimes inordinate need for supportive love even as adults.

This pattern in the C vector is frequently found in socalled qellfunctioning and fairly happy individuals who, besides a general positive attitude to society, feel them selves also a part of a more closely knit in-group, such as family or group of close friends.

Tracing through occupational levels from hard physical labor to the professions requiring greatest degrees of artistic or scientific sublimation, we find a steady increase in the frequency of the (Cd0m+) configuration. In my study of various groups of artists, musicians, and writers, this has been by far the most frequent pattern in the C vector.

The most important pathologic significance of this constellation lies in the proneness for anxious clinging, mentioned above, which, in the event that there are other signs for anxiety on the profile (h+, hy!!, k-), can result in obviously neurotic symptoms.

· Agoraphobia, although a rare symptom in its most clear cut form, is characteristically associated with the above pattern.

The combination of a strong (h+!! with m+) is always a sign indicating the subject's intense need of dependence. If this correlation of reactions is found in adults, it can be interpreted as

· genital immaturity and a fixation on the original parentchild relationship pattern. Another group in which this constellation is frequent is represented by

· adult stutterers, the underlying dynamics of this finding being most probably identical with the dynamics described.

The (Cd0m+) reaction is one of the three most frequent C vectorial configurations in the general population (in all the sixteen possible variations in which the two factors of the vector can be combined.) Most frequently it is found in old age, although it is frequent in adults, and not infrequent in adolescents. It becomes increasingly rare in the younger age groups, until its occurrence in young children is most unusual. The rarity of this configuration in childhood can be understood if one thinks of the children's strong need to attach themselves to the mother in reality, which need can not be gratified by substituting another object, particularly not an abstract concept, in the place of the mother. This insistence on a particular object is indicated by the lack of the (Cd0m+) constellation in childhood; instead, we find C vector patterns in this age, which indicates actual frustration in regard to oral gratification. On the other hand, the high frequency of this constellation in old age (between the ages of sixty and eighty, to(Cd0m+) is by far the most frequent pattern in the C vector) reflects most probably the generalized need to cling to practically any object in the immediate environment, which is a characteristic trait of old people.


In contrast to the (Cd0m+) configuration, which implied socially positive and optimistic characteristics in the main, and was the most usual C vectorial reaction in socially welladjusted adults, the (Cd0m-) reaction is given by those

· subjects who have the most negativistic attitude toward society and are socially least adjusted. If encountered in adults, this constellation in the C vector indicates social maladjustment, no matter what the configuration of the rest of the test profile is.

The lack of concern in respect to choosing specific objects (open d) coupled with the denial of the need to lean on others (m-) results in a socially desperate attitude of indifference. This negativistic social attitude occurs usually in individuals who originally felt frustrated in regard to gratifying oral needs in their childhood and have also reached the conclusion in later life that the objects available for libidocathexis will not furnish the gratification needed to make up for what they have missed in childhood. Thus, subjects with (Cd0m-) are essentially disappointed I life, and

· this disappointment is easily turned into aggression against the frustrating environment.

The transition from disappointment into manifest aggressive behavior is usually brought about by way of the mechanism of unconscious projection (p-), which enables the person to attach the blame for his basic frustration on specific persons or objects in his environment. The high frequency of this constellation in the C vector among criminals is most probably due to the sequence of mechanisms outlined above. (Cd0m-) in these cases appears in conjunction with h+, (s0 or s+, e0 or e-, and p-)

The other pathologic group for which this pattern in the C vector is characteristic, are the hippomanic patients, or cases of incipient mania. It is assumed that the indiscriminate grabbing attitude of these patients is also based on strong frustration of the oral need to cling to and enjoy the objects of the world. Again, the (m-) indicates that the subject has given up more constructive and optimistic attempts in regard to satisfying this need; instead, he is trying to derive some sort of pleasure from any object he comes across (d0), many times in an asocial or antisocial way (m-). However, these indiscriminate attempts do not furnish any real satisfaction, which accounts for the quick discarding of objects and the general instability and unpredictability of the behavior of these subjects.

· Besides these two pathologic groups, (Cd0m-) is frequent in any form of psychosis in the stage at which the patients are ready to be institutionalized because their behavior has become antisocial.

Comparing the pathologic significance of this C vector pattern with its opposite, (Cd0m+), it is obvious that while the (Cd0m+) could be generally interpreted as a sign against any serious form of pathology anxiety neurosis representing the worst cases in which it was found –

· the constellation (Cd0m-) is one of those essential determinants in the test which give an unfavorable interpretation to the whole profile, no matter what the reaction in the other six factors are. With this constellation, neurotic symptoms are much less frequent than are psychotic symptoms or antisocial behavior.

The distribution curve throughout the various age groups shows trends exactly opposite to the previous configuration in this vector. (Cd0m-) is most frequent in children, and shows rapid decrease in frequency with increasing age. In adults, it occurs less than half as frequently as it

does in children (about 10o per cent in adults) and is most unusual in old age. As in the case of the (Cd+m-) configuration, the interpretation of the (Cd0m-), if encountered in children, is not nearly so unfavorable as it is if encountered in adults. The underlying psychodynamics

for the relatively high frequency of both of these C vectorial

configurations in childhood are most probably also practically identical. Both reflect the children's actual frustration because of the necessity to give up their most intimate attachment to their mother, and both reflect their attempts to find substitutes for the mother figure by cathecting numerous objects of the environment, without, however, being able to "cling" to these new objects the way they did to the mother. It seems that substitute satisfaction in this area is linked to the ability to sublimate the original oral need, and thus can not be achieved before maturity, which coincides with the age when (Cd0m+) becomes

frequent. According to my experience, it is not even favourable for later personality development to skip this stage of oral frustration as indicated by (+-) reaction in children or the adult personality will show too strong a need for dependence, and too low a tolerance of unavoidable frustrations.

The rarity of (Cd0m-) in old age is most probably owing to the intensive

clinging of old persons to everybody in their immediate environment,

and to their effort to keep up contact with life. (Cf. high frequency of

(Cd0m+) in this age group.)


Only the most concise characterization will be given of this and the following two constellations in the C vector, since the four basic forms of reactions of the two component factors have been discussed in detail, first as single factorial reactions, and later in relation to the six most characteristic configurations in the whole vector. Nevertheless, at least a very brief separate characterization of the following two constellations is warranted because of the distinct types of object relationships corresponding to them.

(Cd0m0) is yielded by subjects for whom object relationship as such is not an area of concern. They can be characterized as easygoing individuals who experience no particular difficulty in changing from one situation to another. Their attitude is more or less the same toward all objects and persons with whom they come in contact; namely, a childish curiosity concerning ways the object, person, or situation may be most enjoyed. They are hedonists, as a spoiled child is a hedonist in assuming that the duty of the mother is to take care of his wellbeing. Thus, the carefree attitude of these subjects hinges on the expectation that somebody will take care of them as their mothers did. That the (d) factor, as well as the (m), is drained is an indication that, actually, these subjects are able to bring about such situations; otherwise tension would be indicated in at least one of the two factors. On the other hand, the fact that there is no tension in regard to either the anal type or the oral type of objectrelationship is in itself and indication of a genitally immature sexual organization, since some degree of tension in at least one of these pregenital component drives is expected following successful establishment of genital supremacy.

Accordingly, this configuration is found frequently in cases of neuroses in which sexual immaturity is among the obvious symptoms. Socalled anal and oral perversions appear frequently in conjunction with this pattern in the C vector.

Although personality types corresponding to this configuration have been characterized as "infantile" in their relationship and expectancy toward environment, it has been found infrequently in children. This may be due to the simple fact that the test can not be administered to children less than approximately three and a half years old, at which age they have outgrown the developmental stage corresponding to this C vectorial pattern. This constellation occurs with relatively highest frequency in adolescents, and with next highest frequency in adults, being given in both groups by those individuals who are inclined to be, indiscriminate hedonists.


This configuration occurs in no more than approximately 5 per cent of the general population, yet whenever it does occur it has great diagnostic value. Subjectively, this constellation is experienced as unhappiness to a greater degree than any other constellation in the C vector. Subjects yielding (Cd+m±) feel depressed, and are conscious of their conflicts in regard to their relationships to objects in their environment. In this sense, the present configuration corresponds psychologically to an attitude diametrically opposite to that described in connection with the (d0m0) constellation. The plus (Cd+m±) shows that objects of the environment are needed and highly valued (d+), but that they cannot be enjoyed (m±). The fact that the (m±) attempts to derive enjoyment from the environment (m+) concurrent to denials of the possibility of attaining the enjoyment, accounts for the experience of an acute and hopeless conflict which, in behavior, appears as a depressed mood. In other words, the individual needs anal possession of objects as well as oral adherence to them, and feels unhappy if either of these two aspects of object relationship cannot be materialized. On the other hand, the (m±) reaction indicates that the oral clinging cannot be gratified.

In any other configuration in which one of these needs represents a less salient component of the motivational structure of the personality either because there is less tension or because the individual is more resigned to unavoidable frustrations the mood is not as acutely depressed as it is in the pattern under discussion. Subjects yielding (Cd+m±) are often able to verbalize the exact nature of their problem. They feel that they would be inclined to be greedy and hedonistic, but are not able to satisfy these needs. They may appear to be successful because the (d+) gives them enough "anal" persistence to reach concrete goals, but they have too much "oral” need to feel gratified by mere ownership of objects. Despite their possession of many objects they feel lonesome (m-). On the other hand, they are "anal" enough to drive themselves constantly in the search for new objects. It has been implied in the general characterization that this pattern is characteristic for pathologic forms of depression. It also occurs frequently in certain types of hysteric patients for whom a restless search for constantly new objects is characteristic.

There is no specific age group for which this constellation is characteristic. It occurs least frequently in middleaged adults.

A cursory glance at the (C±±) pattern might lead to the conclusion that there is more tension and subjectively experienced conflict here than there is in (Cd+m±). This, however, is not the case. Restless tension moodiness are, undoubtedly, characteristic of (C±±) subjects yet they do not feel so acutely depressed as those individuals yielding (d+m±). This can be understood if one realizes that (C±±) contains in itself the main factors of the "block of irreality: the (Cd-m-). Characteristics discussed in connection with the latter configuration account for the paradoxical finding that individuals who give this pattern of "double" conflict have more ways to solution at their disposal than those who show conflict in only one of the two factors, in (m). The (Cd-m-). components of this double conflict make it possible for the individual to withdraw to find some satisfaction on an abstract level of unreality in lieu of frustrating fights in reality (Cd+m±). Thus, whether we call it sublimation or escape, these subjects are able at times to avoid realistic frustrations by turning to mechanisms of depreciating realistic, conventional scales of values and retreating into their own autistic world.

On the other hand, the (d+m+) components of the present configuration in the C vector, show that the same subject at other times is eager to secure a multitude of material objects in order to master as well as to enjoy them. Thus, according to my experience, the ambivalence toward reality of individuals yielding (Cd±m±). manifests itself more in the succession of small time units than in the unbroken experience of hopeless conflicts, associated with those who reflect the C vectorial configuration (Cd+ m±) in which the definite (d+) shows that, in spite of actual frustrations, the individual is consistently attached to material reality beyond a willingness to deny its importance.

The (Cd±m±) is generally the pattern occurring least frequently among all the sixteen possible variations in the C vector. It occurs with relatively greatest frequency in compulsion neurosis, in manicdepressive psychoses, and in early stages of paranoid schizophrenia. In the first group it corresponds to the basic ambivalence underlying all the objectrelationships of compulsion neurotics. In manicdepressive psychotics, it reflects the moodiness, and in the early stages of paranoid schizophrenia, it most probably corresponds to the tenuous contact with reality which, in actual frustration, is given up easily in favor of an autistic irrealism. This pattern in the C vector is virtually never found in children, and very rarely in puberty or adolescence. In other words, it appears most frequently in adulthood and old age.

The End C Constellations.

© 1996-2001 Leo Berlips, JP Berlips & Jens Berlips, Slavick Shibayev