L. Szondi

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EGO PROFILES. (Sch Vector)

This Ego vector translation is based on interpretations made by Jean Mélon in his book: ”Théorie et Pratique du Szondi, 1975, Liège”. I hope this translation will contribute to give the Forum readers some new and fresh perspectives on the classical standard interpretations. Observe that I am not a professional translator, so I hope you will overlook my grammatical mistakes. Moreover this is not a strict, but instead a very liberal adapted translation, which means that, in case there is any involuntary deviation of the original text, I have to take the whole responsibility.

On the Leopold Szondi Forum you will also find a short general introduction to the Szondi test, see: > http://www.szondiforum.com/t420.htm>; moreover a survey of the (k) and (p) factor. See also the article: “Expansion and Restriction”. If you who want to read a more exhaustive introduction to the Ego profiles we recommend you to download the Section: Ego I, Ego II and Ego III from the Forum.

Suzanne Deri refers to the following stages of Ego development: (however in our presentation we follow Szondi’s order of precedence). Your editor, Leo Berlips.

Deri´s stages:
1. Sch0- No distinction between the Ego and the Other (before one year)
2. Sch+- Omnipotent magic-autistic (pre-oedipal
3. Sch±- Boisterous turbulent phase (oedipal stage)
4. Sch-- Latency period
5. Sch-0 Beginning adolescence
6. Sch-+ Adolescence

1. Sch+0

Total introjection. Narcissism at work. Will for power. Egocentric, egoism. The transitional object has been indicated by WINNICOT as: the first “not me possession”. The first object that I own and which is not me can be considered to be the first tangible sign of a passage from the state of “p= Being”, a-dualistic, to the state of “k= Having”. This transitional object is a substitution (Ersatz), used instead of the breast. Because it is not “I” and neither the other it allows preparing the ground for a differentiation between the Ego and the Other, between inside and outside, between reality and the world of imagination.

The transitional object lays the ground for the category of the exterior – the not me – and of perception (Wahrnehmung). The passage of (p) to (k) activates the jump from the imaginary (being) to reality (having). However it is not so easy to leave the world of being almighty and one is still not very far away from satisfaction by hallucination. The illusion persists: The substitution (Ersatz) assumes the quality of the breast. This is the way WINNICOT sees it: “The sphere of the transitional objects corresponds to sphere of illusion”.

But it is a necessary step. If it does not start in the right way the subject has no possibility to habitate in the “external world”, to occupy and appropriate it, “to take position” (Stellungnahme), to get a taste of it and has no capacity to invest in it. The subject will fall back into pure imagination, the “no-limit-no-ground” , boundless “Whole” that is characteristic for (p), the intolerable absence of being, the fusional regression.

The (k+p0) profile indicates the need for a substitute that will have all the values of the first good object and will be completely incorporated, integrated in the Ego. The subject turns away from the imaginary, he repudiates it (p0) and invests instead in positive values (money, technique, profession….), which he hoards frenetically. He wants to HAVE (Alles Haben) and to incorporate (Einverleiben) everything in a primary, magic and cannibalistic way.

This profile appears at a stage of development where the investment of things gets a great importance, around 4-6 years, at the pre-school age and later at the moment of selecting a profession. Often one finds it in individuals who sublimate in their profession a need to dominate others, more by magic than by real methods: professors, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, ideologists, sociologists etc. such intellectuals who are generally concerned to be efficient. This is in contrast to the philosophers and artists, who will be referred to in connection with the (k0p+) profile.

Clinically the (k+p0) profile appears in all kinds of narcissistic affections, especially in:
the perverts (fetishists, exhibitionists, sadomasochists, etc…) and in all those practices which point out to the denial of castration. FREUD has noted that introjection not only concerns objects but also psychic processes. The phantasms, as far as they correspond to stereotypes of imaginary object-relations, are the products of such projections.

The pervert introjects, like thunderstruck, the primal scene that exposes the castration. (Adhoc Introjektion von dem Urszene) He never succeeded to repress his repulsion or consternation of that moment. However as it continues to exist as a “stigma inerasable”, he is continuously forced to “act out” the primal scene by putting it “on stage”, in order to prove by his frenetically sexual activity the futility of his fears. Nevertheless this throws him automatically and indefinably back again in the same situation. In his approach he uses magical procedures (fetishes, rituals…).

The analogy between the fetish and the transitional object is evident. It is the part that stands for the whole and that permits him to console him for the loss of the whole, at least illusionary.

Clinically we find this profile in:
· The melancholics and the depressed narcissists (bereavement depression) at least during the inaugural moment of illness, when the introjection process has of the lost object has the overhand. The autistic patients and the schizophrenics, especially those who use magical practices.
· The compulsion neurotics, at the end of psychotherapy or during a spontaneous progressive process, when they are again capable of using their anality in a positive way.

The functions of the Ego separated by the splitting off (k-p+), point out to the danger of a menacing depersonalization, as can be expected in those who keep to such an illusionary realism.

2. Sch 0+

Doubling of the Ego – Ambitendency – Bisexuality – Possessed (Besessenheit) – The wish to be: “All and Everything”.

According to Szondi this (Sch0+) profile is the second step of the Ego development (see: note 1), immediately following the breaking down of the fusional participation, (Sch 0-). The Ego produces it’s doubling by taking over the Other, and by this takes in the live-energy, the desires and the power of his archaic parents. The subject becomes his own father and mother. What is happening here is the first outline of an individuation process, which facilitates the realization of identification. At the same time it permits a transition from primary narcissism to secondary narcissism.

At this level functions already the archaic (primary) repression, which can be expressed in such activities as: “counter-cathexis”, “deflation” (des-investment) of the Other and investing in the newly created Ego. The archaic repression collects the libido and binds it to the Ego. Nevertheless at this level one cannot speak yet of any reality testing (k0). The Egoideal does not know yet any limits; it is blown up by megalomania.

The longing to be Everything (Alles Sein), includes the wish to be as well a man as a woman and leads necessary, by canceling all contradictions, to the next phase: the confrontation with one’s own basic shortages. This perception is experienced by the subject as a personal insult. Based on this observation one can conclude that this phase corresponds with the discovery of castration. The way in which the person reacts on this insight and judges himself (Urteil), will decide on the fate of the subject:
- If the subject throws this insight away (Verwerfung) he will risk getting a psychosis,
- If he denies it (Verleugnung) he will become perverse.
- If repression (Verdrängung) will be used the result will be neurosis.

The Sch0+ profile represents thus the Ego situation immediately before the discovery of the castration. The transference of (p-) to (p+) is also the first step to “become conscious”, this process can have three different meanings:
1) The subject becomes conscious of his own desires (Wunschbewusstsein) by the longing to attract the Other. At the same time one can notice the specific way of how the primary (arche) rejection actuates. The longing for the Other is rejected and is put into the Unconsciousness that - according to Lacan- exactly corresponds to the “longing for the Other”, except in the schizophrenic in whom it continues to keep its original quality.
2) The subject becomes conscious of himself. In the future he can direct his libido to his self-image, that was constituted by the doubling with the image of the Other. In this way he can collect a reserve of narcissistic libido, which before was spread out and lost in the chaos of the partial drives. It is the period of the innocent and blissful masturbation. In relation to his own body the child behaves as if being a good mother. It “is” his own mother. If there were a mirror stadium this would correspond with the profile (k0 p+).
3) The same process constitutes the core of what later will function as the Super Ego, the ethical consciousness (Geistige Zensur). But this depends on the measure (intensity) in which the Ego doubled itself with the Other, in the form of being the primary love object and being the first censor, the first person who says no, refuses, forbids or withdraws.

The complexity of this process is the cause that it is not easy to understand the significance of (p+).

We will meet this tendency to inflation in those moments of our life when the identification problem is most acute, namely in adolescence and in our choice of a love object. The inflation is current in all who are possessed by the feeling of loss: poets, scientists, artists, and religious zealots …….

Clinically we find it in
· The inflative paranoids: erotomaniacs, pathological mystics, the possessed fanatics…….
· The extreme passionates (possessed) and those who show pathological jealousy.
· Bi-sexuals and latent or manifest homosexuals.

The excluded and split off part of the total Ego functions is expressed by (k±p-), the profile that is called “the paroxysmal Running-away-Ego”, (paroxysmale Ausreisser-Ich) that tries to get away from the recognition of its desire and identification problems.

>Note 1: According to Prof. Jacques Schotte, founder of the Pathoanalyse the order of development (the Drive Circuit) in the Ego factor is: 1. (p-), 2. (k+), 3. (k-) and 4. (p+)<

See the discussions about the “Ego circuit” in publications about Pathoanalyse.

3. Sch-0

Repression. (Verdrängung) The neurotic Ego.

The repression we are referring to takes place, according to Szondi, at the Oedipal stage and leads to expulsion, outside of consciousness (p0), of all the representations of desire and to a devaluation (k-) of all the earlier invested objects. This devaluation is reflected on the Ego. Every expression of desire will be denied by the Ego and satisfaction cannot be reached in the open but only in the form of disguising it as a symptom (conversion, acting-out, counter investment…)

Clinically one finds this profile with a very high frequency in the neurotic part of the population – those with sexual problems combined with inferiority feelings, false sublimations, etc……. When the repressing forces arrive at and pass a certain limit, expressed by (k-!, k!!), one can expect a general devaluation of all values linked to the expression of all the erotic desires and objects. The appearance of this negative reaction points out to the entrance of Thanatos. The destruction is directed against everything that activates desire. The subject’s body, being the source of erotic excitement, as well as the body of the other to the degree in which it plays the role of stimulating the drive. This reaction is usual in Catatonic schizophrenics whose negativism and morbid irony are well known. But is equally frequent in the maniacs whose hyperactivity and artificial euphoria factually hide an extreme tendency to destruction.

In the catatonic likewise as in the maniac these negative forces, originally directed against the Ego, are switched around against the outside world. But although this corresponds to a process of auto-healing in every case the nihilistic base stays intact. Observe also that hypertonia (k-!, k!!) nearly always is present in suicide candidates. It is also a typical reaction of alcoholics.

The split off part of the Ego (k+p ±) corresponds to the acceptation of femininity, of castration, which opens the door to becoming aware of the desire. The recognition that something is missing is the precondition of every request! That is the reason that the reaction (k-p0) often points out to the incapacity to formulate what one wants or one is longing for.

4. Sch0-

Total projection. Participation. The paranoid Ego.

This profile represents the most primitive level of the Ego. It expresses the archaic need for fusion, the wish for total participation with the Other: the Mother, Nature and the Universe. The subject projects his wishes and its own power on the Other from whom he expects everything. It is the stage of “primary projection”

This a-dualistic aspiration refers to the primary narcissism, to the “oceanic feeling” or to what BALINT calls “primary love”. When this state inevitably ends it leaves in the unconsciousness a gaping wound, which cannot be healed without leaving scars.

To fill in this gap is the unquenchable and impossible project that is found in the deepest layer of human desire. Every time this task is started again the outcome can only be the same: the experience of a total and cruel disillusion. That is the reason the subject reacts with a “secondary (negative) projection”, accusing the person he holds responsible for the fate of being irremediably left alone. The object, of whom one expected everything, becomes by this necessarily the persecutor. Each time the subject regresses to the level of primary love this secondary projection process is reactivated.

As GOETHE already mentioned: In the beginning there is the Impotence and the PERSECUTION, and not the Action. In this connection Szondi rejoins Freud and Mélanie KLEIN. However one would be wrong to consider that participation only stands for negative regressive and pejorative tendencies. Szondi speaks of the “cancer of modern times” (Krebsübel der Gegenwart) to point out the mortal illness of modern societies, which strongly advocate the ideal of an excessive autonomy and where the child is taken away as fast as possible from the paradise of dependency, in order to force it to assume the role of “being adult” by an enforced individualism. Szondi refers in this connection to a disdain for the need for “participation”.

In contrast FREUD considered that the premature repression of sexuality was the source of “The uneasiness in Civilization” (das Unbehagen in der Kultur). However instead of being in opposition to each other, the fact is that they support each other.

The schizophrenic, in whom the need for a return to the narcissistic state is expressed in its ultimate form, is probably not found more often in our culture than in the primitive or traditional societies. But he is less well integrated in our culture, depending on the fact that he incarnates in the eyes of the individualistic-rationalistic society the “Total Evil”. The civilized person does not anymore participate in anything at all, in contrast to the primitive who participates in the “Great All” – by means of his clan, totem or “mana”.

In this connection there exist a very interesting experimental study, done by PERCY (1) on 100 bush Negroes. (Ich Analyse, p. 524). This author has shown that the Ego profile (Sch 0-) was excessively frequent, representing 42 % of the totality of all the Ego profiles taken. In comparison to this is the fact that this paranoid profile is only found in 14% of the Spanish Navarro population (YARRITU) and in 8% of the Hungarian population (SZONDI).

The weakening of these participative tendencies in civilized man exposes him to the risk to fall into the temptation of reconstituting artificial totalities (nationalism, fascism…). For a long time religion played the role to fill in this vacuum, by creating the illusion of “space-time”, wrapping cozily (coddling) the individual. Somebody has said that since KANT, “We don’t have anymore our head in space, but space in our head”. The passing of (p-) to (p+) might mean this. If the function of participation starts running in a vacuum, the function of faith succumbs the same fate.

This is why Szondi confers to the Pontifex-Ego, (Sch±±), next to its role of integration and transcendence, the mission to restore the functions of participation and faith. This means to assign to the Pontifex-Ego the task to reintegrate the subject’s history in the history of the “Other”, a restoration that permits it to checkmate definitely Thanatos, by combating him on his own terrain. “The end is where we came from”. (T.S. ELLIOT)

The experimental study with the Szondi test shows constantly that the participative tendencies are quiet during the active periods of life but increase rapidly at the moment of involution, to culminate at the approach of death. In the perspective of individual development it seems clearly that the senescence is accompanied by a return in force of this need for fusion and of its correlate, the paranoid projection.

It is somewhat tragic to consider that the function of participation and faith, which is the characteristic of the highest destiny of man, is at the same time the source of its greatest alienation.

Clinically, the profile Sch0- is essentially found in:
· Paranoid schizophrenics with persecution delirium or in the syndrome of “being influenced” in the paranoid epileptics.
· In the pregenital neuroses, where the need is found to maintain or to restore the Dual-Union (m+) with the mother imago in a sado-masochistic way.

To draw to a close: it is important to consider that the projection is only a morbid process when the subject has not developed further than to the level of primary identifications, (absence of p+) and especially if it is expressed in a unilateral way, without the control of “the position taking Ego” (k0).

The Ego functions which are excluded by splitting of (k± p+), refer to the profile of the “compulsive worker”, experience has shown us that this often is connected with latent paranoia.

5. Sch++

Introinflation,To be all and to have everything. (Alles-Sein und Alles-Haben). Total Narcissim.

The ambition “to be All” and the wish “to have Everything” exercise, when they are associated a compensating effect on each other. This is the reason why the Ego state (++) has a superior quality than the (0+) and (+0) states. In (++) the subject makes every effort to actualize his ideal, to translate it into facts, to embody it as well textually as figuratively. This is the meaning of what is indicated with the term “Introinflation”.

This movement reflects the subject’s effort to attain the highest level of conscience about himself. When HEGEL (G.W.F. HEGEL, Propédeutique philosophique, Trad. M. de GANDILLAC Denoël, 1963, p. 77. ) wrote: “The tendency to self-consciousness pushes the subject forward to acquire in everything more consciousness about himself. This consciousness exercises a double activity: (see Note 2)

1. To suppress the otherness of the objects and to put them there were they belong and in line with itself.

2. To get outside oneself and acquire a kind of actual objectivity and reality.

Both these activities form a whole. The activity by which the self-conscience acquires a determination is at the same time an act of auto-delineation, and the other way around. It produces for “itself” the title of “object”. This designs perfectly the two movements by which it realizes the “Enthronement” of the Ego. As a self-consciousness the Ego has the intuition of itself, the statement of this conscience in its purest form is I = I or I am I. More precisely I = Me, I am Me. The two forces which connote respectively (p+) and (k+) are the “Suppression of the otherness of the object” and “The production of oneself as an Object”.

The (k+p+) profile is characteristic for sublimation, as long as the characteristic narcissistic Ego investment that specifies it is accompanied by a desexualisation (h- s-, or h-0). If not so, one tends into morbid narcissism (perversion, psychopathy or psychos). One finds this profile especially at moments of crises in youth, and the 3e decade of life.

Clinically one finds it in
· Megalomania or in the inverse, in those who call themselves powerless, empty of substance, etc.
· Exalted psychopaths
· Perverse hermaphrodites, (travesties).
· The quarreling paranoiacs
· The psychastenics who experience a sentiment of despair, feeling powerless in front of a too high Egoideal.

The split off, excluded Ego profile is (k-p-) the one of adaptation.

Note 2: As I was not quite sure how to translate this part I put here the original French phrases:
>"La tendance de la conscience de soi la pousse ... à se donner en toutes choses la conscience d’ elle-même. Ainsi, cette conscience exerce une double activité 1°- pour supprimer l’ altérité des objets et pour les poser comme égaux à elle-même 2°- pour sortir d’ elle-même et se donner de la sorte objectalité et réalité présente Ces deux activités n’ en sont qu’ une seule. L’ acte par lequel la conscience de soi acquiert une détermination est en même temps un acte d’ autodétermination, et inversement.<

6. Sch--

Adaptation. The drill Ego. The “dissimulating” Ego.
>When (k-! p-) “the destructive, Self- denial-Ego”, when Sch (k- p-!) the dissimulating Ego<

This Drill Ego is the opposite of the almighty, totally narcissistic Ego. (Sch++) Here the subject adapts himself by renouncing to become and to have everything.

“I, as the subject, I don’t want anything (k-) of what the Other wishes. It is the other who gets the investment of almightiness (p-). It is the other who has the Phallus; it is the other who wishes”.

But when the desire of the Other is devaluated neither the Other himself has any value. “Projection of the negation” (p-). This negative tendency is sometimes centripetal and sometimes centrifugal and reminds us of the famous opposition between the master and the slave as NIETZSCHE has described, thereby following HEGEL.

Hegel said that the master is the one who in no circumstances wants to renounce his original liberty, he wants to have everything (k+) en especially he wants to be recognized (p+) by the slave who, because he is afraid to lose his live, “renounces to be himself” (k-)” in front of his master. He then takes revenge by despising his master’s wish. He devaluates it totally by projection of the negation: “I am worthless; but you are not anything better”. By this “negation of the projection” he refuses to recognize that he ever has admired the Other by
1. Denying that he earlier himself wanted to be recognized by the Other, and then by
2. Turning this denial into something valuable (negation of the negation).

He does not invests anymore in the Other, in front of whom he earlier trembled, but transfers this investment on the product of his renouncement: his work as a slave. In this way the “homo faber” (workman) is born, with the herd instinct and at the same time with the ideal of living gregariously. “Equality, fraternity, but at the end no liberty”.

NIETZSCHE revolted with all his energy against HEGEL and his apology for slavery. “We turned the forces of reaction into a so called progress”. (“Wir haben aus der Reaktion einen Fortschritt gemacht”). That is why he considers Western man to be a nihilist, an enemy of life and liberty and an individual who only can re-act and bear grudges. This controversy between Hegel and Nietzsche is the core of most of the ideological debates and of discussions about the Ego. Hegel values self-denial, submission, adaptation (Sch--), and - according to Nietzsche - identifies desire with dead. In contrast Nietzsche prefers affirmation (Bejahung) as well of live as of desire, in other words affirms the Will for Power (Wille sur Macht) (Sch++).

The profile (k-p-) is the profile of Mr. Everyday. It is the most common profile found in the general population. The profile (k+p+) is ten times less common. The average person represents in other words a hypomanic-hypo-paranoid variant. Hypomanic (k-) because he stands for the devaluation of the desired object and the Ego. Hypo paranoid because of the projection (p-) of his own desires and his own destructivity, which are projected on the Other.

Moreover the negation of the projection and of the content that is projected makes the Other appear worthless in the image of the projecting subject, but also inoffensive. The picture Szondi made of Mr. Everyday corresponds with that of HEGEL’s slave: it is the adapted individual, “being like every one else”, a reliable worker, a pillar of society. The Ego (“I”) has become “Everyone”.

The (k-p-) profile is significantly rare in young children; S.DERI considers this profile as being typically for the latency period. It increases rapidly in the result of the adults after they become 30 years. Clinically it is found in the:
· Maniacs.
· Agitated catatonics.
· Suicide aspirants.
· Patients with general paralyses or other forms of organic psychosis.
· Criminal or asocial psychopaths.

The splitted off Ego (k+p+) corresponds to total narcissism. (Alles SEIN und alles HABEN)

7. Sch±0

Introjected restrain (Zwang). The obsessional Ego. The masculine Ego.

Here the Ego turns away from the imaginary (p0) to concentrate itself essentially on ”reality”. To such what one can have, what is concrete and objective. Referring to the drive movements and its objects the Ego takes an ambivalent position (k±). It denies, denigrates and represses (k-) them but at the same time it does approve and gives them value (k+) in another form. This incapacity to take position is characteristic for the obsessive personality, he will and will not, he avoids as much as possible the direct and immediate actualization of his desires. He realizes them by using the defense mechanism “reaction formation”. The wish for revenge for instance, when not accepted by the Ego makes him a very severe judge in all questions concerning equality. That in which he has contra-invested is afterwards highly valued in a narcissistic way. This is the sense of the “Intronegation” process, an “introjection of the product of the negation”.

One meets this profile every time the subjects is busy elaborating reaction formations, especially when leaving the Oedipus situation (5-6 years) and in the second part of adolescence (13-16 years).

Clinically one finds it in:
· The obsessionals and obsessive compulsive neurotics
· The hysterics, especially those with phobias
· The hypochondriacs
· The psychotics with obsessions and compulsions
· Criminal psychopaths (in prison they tend to give more (k- p0)

The split off Ego functions are (Sch0±) “the abandoned feminine Ego”.

8. Sch0±

Inflative projection. The abandoned emasculated Ego.
The feminine Ego.

The dilemma of identification is here clearly alighted. The subject balances between
1. The desire to be his own, autonomic (p+) and
2. 2. To stay in the Other or to return (p-) to this state, without being able to decide which position to take (k0).

The individuation (p+), the narcissistic investment in oneself, the access to the position of being a subject who wants autonomy is not possible as long as it awakes the fear of losing the Other, who is still strongly evaluated and invested. Consequently the feeling of an inescapable loss invades the subject. If he detaches himself from the Other it means abandonment. If he arrives at autonomy he is exposed to castration, because (p+), implies a narcisstic-phallic inauguration and at the same time starts the Oedipal rivalry ( with all what that means as for fear of being castrated and abandoned)

The ambivalence in (p±) reflects exactly this hesitation and awe in front of the Oedipus situation and its consequences the definitive confrontation with the rival that this implies. Such a dilemma finds habitually a solution in a compromise. The subject identifies with the phallus of the mother, which permits him to live as a complete (whole) and perfect object, without having to leave the Dual relation.

The ransom he has to pay for this is the subjugation and transformation of his original desire into the need “to be desired by the Other”, to whom he in the end has sacrificed his state as an independent desiring subject. In this way the Other and the “I” are condemned to inflate each other. The term “projective inflation” points out to this type of relation, characterized by reciprocal adoration.

This is the typical problem of homosexuals and “phallic” women who totally identify with the phallus. This is why one can speak about this profile (k0p±) as being “the feminine Ego”, meaning that the subject experiences himself as the phallus of the mother, as a whole object. However…. not wholly independent (detached), because he only is keeping to the sphere of “Being”, refusing to enter the sphere of “Having”. This is the reason for the subject’s one- sided idealism, unrealism, introversion, vague borderlines, indifference to authority and his tendency to immersion in the boundless expanse of the « Whole ».

All these characteristics oppose point for point the qualities of the masculine Ego. The split off functions are (±0) “the masculine Ego”

9. Sch+-

Introprojection. Autism, The obstinate Ego (Das Trotz Ich)

Due to the need (k+) ” to posses everything” (Habmacht), the Ego takes over all the power it has initially projected on the Other. It introjects the primitive mother, the phallic mother who existed before the Ego’s differentiation as an independent subject and before the instauration of the Law of the father and the recognition of the difference between the sexes.

This introjection is not only restricted to the (p) factor sphere of “Being All and Everything” where the subject could solve his problems in the phantasm and get past the border of reality. By this refusing to accept the feeling of castration in such a radical way, the Ego falls back into the primary processes, which start to invade reality. The absence of the barriers of repression has as a consequence
· a total loosening of restraint, an absence of any discipline and at the same time
· the expression of antagonistic drive tendencies which means discordance, a main symptom of psychosis.

Autism corresponds to the fact that the Ego, in a real and not fantastic way, has taken over the primitive omnipotence. Here the subject really acts out his archaic phantasms or tries to do so anyhow. He refuses to submit himself to the reality principle and does not renounce his way of getting hallucinatory satisfaction.

One observes this profile in childhood, during the period of being all the time in opposition (3-4 years), sometimes also in the latency period (5-8 years).

Clinically one finds this in
· the autistic schizophrenics,
· the simple and the old schizophrenics
· the paranoiacs (especially those who “consider themselves a famous or important person)
· the melancholic, during the inaugural period of their depression
· the schizoid perverts
· adolescent girls with psychosocial problems

The split-off part of the Ego is that of the “Inhibited Ego” (k-p+). The rapid change from one profile to the other, the reactions (k-p+) and (k+p), one can often observe in the progressive periods of schizophrenia, especially in incipient schizophrenia.

10. Sch-+

Negation of the inflation.
The inhibited Ego, restrained, impeded (Hemmung)

The wish exists tends to be recognized (p+) but is exposed to a continuous deflation because it clashes with the veto of the “ restraining Ego” that takes position” (k-). This causes a continuous painful feeling of always being restrained, stopped in one’s momentum, powerless to realize oneself and one’s desires. Moreover it causes the feeling of being abnormal, smaller or less well equipped than the others, like wise as feelings of frustration and jealousy, and the need to compete. In order to avoid conflicts with the Id, the Ego restricts itself in the exercise of its functions and put a brake on them.

This incapacity to realize one’s own Ego Ideal is the cause that the phantasm gets priority over the real experienced existence and is the cause that the (homosexual) rivalry replaces the (heterosexual) desire. This profile appears every time when the subject has to protect himself against realizing his desires. It is frequent in adolescence and in the second decade of life. Clinically it shows up in:
· All kind of neuroses
· Conversion hysteria, together with (Sch±0)
· Hypochondria (P+-, 0-)
· Compulsion Neuroses
· Sexual problems, impotence, frigidity etc.
· Catatonic schizophrenia, however less usual (k-!)

The split off profile is the (Sch+), the autistic attitude. It is not rare that strongly restrained persons suddenly free themselves and throw away all control. This metamorphose is presented as a great show by hysterics who suffer of a “double personality”. The split off functions (+-) show the profile of “the obstinate, autistic Ego”.

11. Sch -±

Negation of the castration, femininity and abandonment. Alienation. Depersonalization. Derealization.

This Ego is uncertain about its identity (p±) and refuses to accept the “absence” (loss), which means the castration, the femininity, the separation, the abandonment and generally speaking “Death”, vanity, the decay and the day of reckoning (Verfalltag) of his “state of being”. It does not want to accept its fate, and at the same time cuts itself off from his desire, precisely caused by the longing for what he misses. It is obvious to see that what it misses here is the capacity to say yes, to accept, and to affirm its destiny (k+). By refusing to take a place in the world the Ego becomes a stranger in the world (Entfremdung). It flies away from his desire and its objects, retreats in an ivory tower, and isolates itself. But as one cannot fly away from the world without detaching oneself also from the internal objects there exist the danger of depersonalization. (In schwerkranken Fallen entsteht nicht nur eine Entfremdung von der ausseren, sondern auch von der inneren Welt)

This profile is especially frequent, (likewise as in k0p+), in transition periods (puberty, climacteric) and in the fourth decade (age of jealousy). Clinically one finds it in:
· Conversion hysteria, where the exclusion of specific body parts (lamed …., anesthesia, etc.) symbolically express the disinvestment of a part of the objective reality, namely the part that has a symbolic connection with the specific desire.
· Hypochondria
· Suicide candidates, alcoholism and other toxic manias
· Pathological jealousy
· Some epileptics

The complimentary profile (k+p0) is the profile of operational narcissism.

It happens that one meets apathic daydreamers who suddenly get away from their depersonalization phase and suddenly, with intensive force, start with a specific activity, work or a project. One has to be careful not to diagnose them as “manic-depressives” but instead qualify them as “poorly depersonalized persons”. They are only in a passing way identified with their body. They refuse to take a role or a mask (Persona), which would give them some consistency and at the same time would somehow give them a specific profile. This would have the consequences that they would have to accept limits; something they don’t want to do.

12. Sch±-

Inhibited projection (Gehemmte Projektion).
The running away Ego. The paroxysmal Ego. (Das Ausreisser-Ich)

At this stage, in his relation to the Other, the subject continues to live in a climate of dependency (p-) where projection dominates. But he has become very ambivalent in his way of reaction to his projective tendencies. Sometimes he takes in everything he projected on the Other, by way of (in the form of) an autistic intoxication (Sch+-), another time he adapts himself and suppresses (Sch--). This type of alternating movement, between the one and the other, gives him his paroxysmal character.

Often the person forces himself to get out of the Dual relation in which he finds himself involved and runs away anywhere, without really knowing why. “Flight for the sake of flight”. In fact what he is flying away from is the Identification (p+) (his wish to become an independent subject) and the Oedipal rivalry, which this would mean. The main feeling those persons experience is despair (Ver-zweifelung). Despair to leave behind them that which they confusedly consider to be the most dear and most important.

One finds this profile especially at the beginning of the latency (5-8 years) and at the end of live (70-80 years). Clinically it appears in
· The paroxysmal, epileptic-form deviations: porio- and dromomaniacs, kleptomaniacs, dipsomaniacs, pyromaniacs
· The paranoid runaways
· The melancholics, at the moment when they start to detach themselves from the introjected lost object, in order to get rid of it by way of destroying it (passing from k+ to k-)
· Kleptomaniacs, dipsomaniacs, pyromaniacs.
· Stammerers.
· In general in the essential epileptics.

The splitting off Ego profile (Sch0+) is the one of pure inflation, with a narcissistic investment in oneself.

13. Sch+±

Acceptation of the abandonment and femininity.

We have earlier explained the relation between (p+) and the way to get out of the identification problem by taking over the role of the phallus of the mother. Here the Ego has a tendency to realize concretely this phantasm, which of course is not possible. He would fall down either in extreme narcissism (Sch++) or in autism (Sch+-).

One can understand that what he in this case refuses, by pretending to accept, is the danger of castration. Let us not be mistaken: when we refer, in relation with the (Sch+±), to the acceptation of the castration, abandonment and femininity, we mean the experience and recognition that something is missing.

However one needs to know that a refuse is coupled to this acceptation. The castrated subject who feels that he is missing the appendix that makes the difference between the sexes, at the same time recovers by an indemnification, in the shape of the phantasm of having a type of phallic, smooth and whole body without any fault. It is a perverse solution. In “the Analysis finished and infinite”, (Endliche und unendliche Analyse) FREUD considered that the female identification in a man constituted the stumbling block par excellence of the analytical treatment. To castrate oneself voluntary in order to recover by the phantasm of having a phallic body is the supreme trick of narcissism.

This profile is found in the initial phases of the Oedipal conflict

(3-4 years) and at the time of its reactivation, at adolescence

(13 –16 years) Clinically one find it especially in
· Paranoid neurotics who have a strong maternal identification, who distrust women and sustain important narcisstic ambitions.
· Anxiety neurotics who fight against strong incest tendencies or against polymorph perversities and suffer of an intense castration anxiety.

The split off Ego profile is (k-p0) and indicates neurotic repression. That what the neurotic represses is in fact very often, his homosexuality, his feminine half part.

14. Sch±+

Deflation by restraint. The compulsive forced-labour Ego (Das Zwangsarbeiter-Ich)

The subject fights against his desire and ambition to realize himself (p+) and instead devaluates and disparage himself (k-), however he still succeeds to realize himself through contra-investments (k+) in his work and studies etc. ……….. By this he constitutes himself a place, a territory, a role and a status in which he invests narcisstically. He will be e.g. the “specialist”, the first class technician. However his existence is often dominated by a feeling of sadness, of a dreariness because he has the confuse feeling that he has bypassed the essential, that he has cut off his “real” desire. He feels that all what he has invested in so much, in reality is just a substitute (Ersatz). That is the reason why he is always in danger to sabotage (k-) that what he realizes (k+). Moreover it seems to him that he is missing something, that he lacks notably the capacity to create. And indeed he has cut of his capacity to participation (p-), without which true creation that means discovering the original, is impossible.

Often he suffers also of incapacity to meet others, to communicate with them. This profile of the obsessional hard worker is rather common in individuals who live actively in the world and who are very fond of (possessed by) their profession and their enterprises, but still feel dissatisfied and in doubt about the value and the sense of their work. This is a relatively high-developed Ego state and those who present it are often good candidates for psychoanalyses. Their wish will be “Help me to learn to love and to create”. That is in fact what is the most precious what one can give them and in such case the psychoanalytical therapy has a chance to succeed. One finds this profile especially at the end of adolescence. Clinically we find it in:
· Patients with phobias, who are afraid for authority, adventure, to be tested etc…..
· Narcisstic neurotics who alternate between mega- and micro mania.
· Subjects who react to crisis with paroxysmal outbursts: sudden rage, migraine, stammering, outbursts.

The split off Ego profile (Sch0-) is the profile of participation and projection.

15. Sch±±

Integration. The Ego that fears catastrophy. The integrating Ego. The Pontifex-Ego.

This Ego points out to the highest state of Ego evolution. It corresponds to the successful integration of all its functions, which generally are dissociated by cleavage. Ideally the Ego becomes capable to transcended the oppositions between:
(++/ --) Narcissistic ambition > < Renouncement, Adaptation
(+-/ -+) Autistic Anarchy > < Neurotic Inhibition
(±0/0±) Masculanity > < Femeninity
(0-/ +) Fissional participation > < Alienation, in work and in technique.
(0+/ ±-) Inflation (Identification) > < Fugue (Errance)
(0+/-±) Introjection. Incorporation > < to become a "stranger-in-the-world and to one's body"
(-0/+±) Repression > < Acceptation of castration.

This profile (Sch±±) is essentially found at the end period of adolescence.

Clinically one observes this profile every time the Ego is obliged to concentrate all its forces to avoid a menacing disintegration, especially in
· Anxiety neurosis and anxiety hysteria
· Traumatic neuroses, where the Ego has passed through an extreme chock and exerts itself to build up its unity
· Tachycardiac paroxysmal, frequent in hysteric-phobias
· All states which precede the immediate outbreak of a psychosis or an epileptic attack.

The complementary profile is the one of total Ego disintegration (Sch00)

16. Sch00

Desintegration. Ego metamorphose (Ich-Wechsel). Ego impotence. Twilight states. Epileptic vertigo. Ego loss. (Ich Verlust)

The Ego loss, which implies the abolition of the control mechanisms at the frontiers between the It and the exterior world, would theoretically mean the free play of the drive forces. But in fact one can clinically observe that this Ego state does not mean a total collapse of the Ego, but points out to a special capacity to change roles, especially the sexual role. To the outside observer, but even to the person himself, the subject is apprehended as an instable, inconstant person. A type of personality that corresponds very well with the one described by Helene DEUTSCH as the “As if” personality, who instead of reacting either auto- or allo-plastically, adapt themselves in a poly-plastical way. One finds this profile in paroxysmal, passionate and bi-sexual persons, who alternatively show such a reaction.

Clinically one finds it in
· Psychopaths
· Bi-sexuals, especially lesbians
· Sado-masochistic perverts
· Phobics, obsessionals and epileptics in critical phases
· In cases of epileptic vertigo, poriomania or other epileptic equivalents.


© 1996-2001 Leo Berlips, JP Berlips & Jens Berlips, Slavick Shibayev