The Psychology of the Paroxysmal drive.
The following considerations as for the
psychology of the Paroxysmal drive started from the attempt to develop the
fate-psychological drive system in such a way that it also can become "
useful " in the teaching of psychoanalytical oriented development.
Need tendencies, need and drive goals were
defined and formulated to a large part in the language of pathology and
biological criteria. The uniqueness (originality) of this system is however
based therein that thereby the requirement is formulated to construct a
generally accepted Need system of the human psyche and its fate-determining
conflicts. A system that at the same time establishes the order by which
illness, illness development and general disease picture can be understood,
based on generally human, opposite needs and unresolved conflicts.
The psychological contrasts are not
arbitrary (polar) interlocked in a schema but such by which both development,
maturing and illness become understandable. Dialectic thinking in the
fate psychology stands therefore in front before a double danger and
1. Terms valid for pathology may not
simply be transferred into the range of the general deep-psychological theory
of the opposite need tendencies strivings and impulses.
2. Drive-dialectic and the polar opposite
needs and strivings are in each case of a different kind, according to whether
we have to do with
conflict-resolutions or with
· development-restraining disturbances or
· ill-making illusory fake solutions.
We must acknowledge that the
fate-psychological drive system still contains many gaps and questions,
particularly regarding the commonly used terms and concepts, and determination
of the need and of the drive goals.
(Left out a part of the
difficult theoretical questions, you will find this part at the end of the
The four affect tendencies
We try to describe the four opposite
affect excitations as affect- energy pushing forward from life sources
(vitality), laying at the base of our emotional experiences.
them with the concepts we use to indicate the first everyday affects, like the
excitations of children in their first year of life. We indicate the
“epileptic form” of the affect tendencies by the (e) factor: Shrieking as
expression of rage in contrast to weeping in order to get sympathy and pity.
form” of the affect tendencies are expressed by the (hy) factor by:
being seen, looked at and feeling to be loved and appreciated in contrast to
shyness, shame and refusing to be seen.
these childish affect excitations (energy) as the “original” ones, which are in
a very intensive way connected to each other and which during development
phases interweave with new connections or contrasts.
can be extended in a plurality with other drives (Contact, Sex) and Ego
extensions of the emotional experience always falls back on the four original
affect excitations as the sources of energy.
They “activate” the ecstatic “being
carried away” (Ergriffen sein) in rage, pity, enjoyment and refusal. They get
the person “out of his skin” and transform him in a liberating or alarming, in
a joyful or depressive way into a relation with something else.
each of these four “original” Affectenergies, their distortions and finally
their pathological manifestations with different concepts.
The four original opposite affect
excitations are in the factor (e):
The affect excitation (e-), indicates the
rise of feelings of protest and revolt, and the “primitive” affect excitations
as reaction to pain and agony.
In contrast (e+) points out to feelings of
compassion, weeping, giving rise to acts of social assistance, based on the
need (urge) to get protection and rescue from pain and agony (+e). Both times
the reactions to pain and agony can be felt directly by the subject or
indirectly, by identification with suffering objects.
The need goal (e) is the urge for
pacification, to know one self to be safe, the need to be protected and rescued
from avoidable pain. It includes the longing for consideration of our fear-,
pain and a tolerance with our aggressive reactions when exposed to unavoidable
The two opposite (e) affect tendencies
are: (e+) Weeping, as a call for compassion and (e -) Rebellion as protest,
the shrieking out of pain and agony in rage and hate, in envy and jealousy,
with anger and revenge feelings (e-).
The sense of justice develops in the
exchange between revolting, protesting, and suffering and weeping, in the
revolt against those who cause pain and agony ¡by refraining and hurting
us, or in instead in repairing; when showing consideration for pain, and
tolerance for anxiety when getting injured or wounded (hurt).
The factor (hy):
Stand for the affectexcitations when
“being looked at”. They belong to the “tender, erotic” affect excitations: The
desire to be looked at, being loved, and admired (hy+); or the shame and the
refusal to be seen and instead to use as a substitute the stage of the internal
spectator and in this way to save the feeling to be loved and estimated
(hy-).When ashamed and shy in the outer world, we will be admired on this
interior stage and be recalled by our internal spectators.
The need goal of the (hy) factor is the
urge to be loved and to be estimated by what one is, has and can.
The sense of social competence (Schicklichkeit und Geschick haben) develops in
the exchange between restraint and showing oneself, in the appearance on the
stage or in hiding and being content with oneself alone; or in the
preparation for a celebration , in the pre- joy as well as in triumph, to stand
in front on the stage alone or with others alone.
The need for protection and safety by
feeling pacified and knowing to be satisfied, the survival of one self and
one’s life refers to the consideration (granted or forced) for the limits each
person has to accept..
The need to be seen in a positive joyful,
loving way and to know to be estimated has to do with the increase of the
quality of life. It concerns those “places” on the stage of the life, of which
R.M. Rilke says, “where one once somewhere stood in front and where the
movement is largest”. By this urge to be joyfully seen and be greeted and
received, gratitude feelings develop and do we care for to get such a welcome
by those, which we love or have loved.
Thinking about the affect-vector
focuses in a strange way around the difficult task to image (represent) the
contrast between live and death. As an increase of life when getting performing
on the stages of life and the world and in the prevention of and coping with
the danger of the destruction of life; whereby this overcoming will be
experienced as Live stimulating, in the form of rescuing, helping, and
The four “original” (normal) contrasting
(e+) suffering, weeping, compassion,
feeling of compassion, Need for Compensation, repair
(hy+) show off, being gorgeous, being
radiant, Rejoicing (because being seen, desired, loved, admired)
(e-) Revolting, protest, rebellion and
envy, jealousy, rage, Hate, anger, revenge, Urge to damage, to injure.
(hy-) hiding, restraint, refuse, Social over- sensitivity, shame,
Disturbed affect energies
The interaction (the contrasting, as well
as the joining together) of the four opposite affect energies is disturbed. In
the test appear individual factor reactions or combinations of factor reactions
(vector pictures) in a stereotyped form, or factors and vector pictures may be
characterized by extreme variability and contrast.
However they do not appear yet to be
connected in a typical pathological way with certain drives or ego-tendencies.
Another characteristic is found in the
fact that the same affect tendency is constant being present in the foreground
and in the background profile; e.g. constantly (e+) or (e + hy-) in the VGP and
I. Inability (reluctancy) to protest and
II. Inability (reluctancy) to make
compensation, or to repair.
III. Inability (reluctancy) to permit
oneself feelings of shame or
IV. Inability (reluctancy ) to show off oneself.
(e+) guilt, conscience anxiety , fear to
(hy+) need for recognition, admiration
Inhibition of any Animosity
(e-) Unconscious death desire or
Excessive excitation of primitive -
Fear for being punished
The DISTURBANCES in the affect life are
primarily based on the elimination or suppression of the opposite affect
tendency. The person feels no urge to make up, to repair because he
accumulated so much hate, envy and rage that he can not have any feeling of
compassion or concern for those who suffer or complaining. The stronger the
reproach and accusation feelings are, e.g. when (e -) combines with the
paranoid (p -) tendency, the more improbably becomes the capacity for empathy
or participation with the object. In the same way neither the “Pacifist” or
the “good-natured kind person ” can decide to protest and start to revolt by
force against the aggressor. The fear of the expected disappointment, suffering
or shrieking paralyze them in advance.
In contrast the assertive one (hy+) does
not want to stand back at all. For him to stand in the footlight, to be
inconsiderate and to use each chance and opportunity to put away others aside
and stand all alone in front is a source of pleasure and makes life worth
living. He does not know anything about the powerful excitation in restraining
oneself or in waiting for the adequate time to step forward, alone or together
with his team. He does not know anything about letting himself be absorbed by
the beauty and appearance of the other.
When one is afraid for punishment one does
not dare to show, what one is, has or can, thinks, did or wish to do. One
conceals or disguises oneself; one does not has the courage to defend one’s
case, action or opinion in front of the others.
The elimination and suppression of the
opposite affect excitation results in specific fears:
With the factor tendency:
(+e): the fear to hurt or to kill others,
whereby they might become angry and dangerous, or the fear that they might
become sad, leave us or die.
(- e): the fear to be suppressed, to get
less or to become exploited. “the rivals, will rob the love object”. The fear
to be attacked or killed. (These fears stand in connection with the energy of
the primitive affects, such as rage, envy etc.)
(+hy): the fear not to be seen, to be left
over, to be forgotten. To be not anymore the preferential one, the chosen one,
the first one..
(- hy): Fear to be laughed at, to be
despised, exposed, judged condemned, criticized, to be misunderstood.
The pathological Affects
They result by the elimination of certain
affect tendencies and by the coupling of the remaining with specific Ego and
Drive disease-syndromes. The disturbance appears after that a not observed
congestion of excitations discharge in a sudden explosive way. These ought to
protect the person “against outside and internal dangers”.
(e+) Phobic fears, compensating alleged
guilt. Need to be punished.
(hy+) movement-storm symptoms (in order
to be loved or to be appreciated)
Totally identification as a form of
reconciliation with the hated love object, or the one one wish to kill
(e-) Unrestrained murder- and injury
(hy-) Immobilization symptoms. (unreal
Fantasy world, escape into the world of lies” I order to feel being loved or
Murderer due to primitive affects (in
contrast to the sadistic murderer.lb)
In this pathological range everything is
focused on eccentric problem solutions, illusionary satisfactions and the
action of desperately trying to get hold of some prove of love. In no other
way, only so (within the
given internal and outside circumstances) the patient believes that love and
pacification can be maintained or regained. Mostly in
a way totally incomprehensible for a normal person. (Pathological illusory
The epilepsy group of affect
tendencies include excitations of contrasting qualities, which are always
connected with the experiencing of pain and agony. At one side in the form of
helplessness and the need for assistance (need to be rescued). They are
expressed by weeping or crying, by suffering with the intention to get
compassion. In the opposite form they show the excitation of primitive affects
whose discharge try to extinguish or to decrease pain and to render harmless
The hysteria-group of affects refer to excitations in connection with the activity
of ¨being seen”, may it be actually or having taken place earlier.
Even they can express themselves at one
side in the form of rejoicing and radiating on the stage of life and the world.
In the opposite form they are expressed as
shame feelings, shyness and by refusing to show oneself here and now in front
of the just these spectators. In the determination not to be exposed, in the
persistent refusal to disclose openly a secret. In a more positive form in the
decision not to act against one´s own convictions and not to be enticed
by possible applause.
The psychology of the factor (e)
We characterized the affect tendency (e+)
with the keywords: weeping, suffering, compassion- producing, feelings of
compassion and need to repair (compensate). On the one hand we thereby want to
place the sudden overwhelming feeling of “compassion” in the center of the
tendency (+e), on the other hand we lean with this on the “compensation
teaching” as presented by M. Klein and the by D.W.
Winnicott presented theory of the development of “feelings of concern for
the objects” on. For both authors are the development of the feelings of
compassion and concern for the object crucial factors for the development of
the object relations and for the constitution of the Super Ego.
Suffering and crying, as a form of
protection from the feeling of feeling oneself being defenseless. The urge to
defend oneself against pain and agony by calling for assistance, perhaps by
requests and begging, by weeping, complaining and accusations (with the
paranoid tendency - p) and then the transformation from weeping and crying to
getting angry and finally to the expression of hate and rage, are features of
Primal affects. In rage and weeping (“psychological helplessness”) lies “the
drive energy (roots) of the ethical conscience”.
Only in reference to the original
Urszenerie with its rage and weeping can the ethical feeling and the sense for
justice develop. The adult does everything to avoid to experience such primal
feelings again, and especially their mixture (rage – weeping; despair -
aggression) The loss of the possibility to connect with the Primalaffects rage
and weeping impairs the development of the sense of justice, in the same way
as the remaining fixed on the childish level of stubborn vacillating between
calling for help and rage attacks, or keeping on stubbornly to suppress weeping
by rage attacks.
The affect tendency (+e)
Both affect tendencies - we explained - are
reactions to pain and agony (L. Szondi: “Danger and fright situations”). From
them develop in favorable cases the search for assistance by “acting
out” (relaxation), by weeping and crying. It concerns the expectation of
assistance and when sufficient “rescue” (D.W.
Winnicott) was experienced, is later followed by the “need for guidance” (M.
Klein) of the child. The demand for guidance, definition of limits and
prohibitions as a form of protection against the too strong excitation of the
child´s primitive affect tendencies with their “catastrophic” painful and
By the action of compassion and by helping
and rescuing, thprimitive the experience of compassion together by the educator
and the child for the suffering and endangered objects, an important component
is mobilized: the appearance of feelings of concern for objects and the
development of the compensation need in the child.
The acting out by crying and manifestations
of rage can, in favorable
cases, by negotiating the dissatisfaction bring out the capacity to protest
and revolt, An ability, which protects the child against excessive accumulation
of primitive affect excitations and against the constant useless crying.
Weeping and crying, changing into rage or compassion enter themselves as two
contrasting but at the same time mixed affect tendencies into the daily life of
the child .
They separate as opposite affect
tendencies but are nevertheless both related to pain and agony and thus by the
urge for protection and rescue, not only apart, but at the same time joined to
each other. They are the two basic affect (e) reactions of humans regarding the
experiencing of pain and agony. They force him to find sometimes assistance and
rescue in the compassion, or to act in protest and revolt. They can also
disintegrate, fall apart themselves into opposites and exclude the other affect
tendency. In that case they fall out from the polarity into the onesided
self-pity and weeping or into reckless rage, an inexorable open or secret urge
In education the care for the polar
relationship would mean that one does not have to react immediately on each
weeping or call for assistance. Neither does one be afraid for the rage attacks
or constantly demonstrate one’s supremacy to suppress them. The development
from rage to protest and revolt (by negotiating the
dissatisfaction ) and from weeping and
compassion-initiating to feelings of concern for objects, develops in the
meeting of the child with his love objects, his
“caretaker ” and “educator”. This is also
true for the differentiation or separation of the originally mixed Primal
affects (rage, weeping, despair). Already the baby and the infant must learn to
absorb (work through) much crying and rage. But they can do this only, if they
in the beginning and continuously experience sufficient “rescue” and the anxious
dealing of the love objects with the child’s dissatisfactions
Dealing with the primitive affects of the
child and the constant negotiating of its dissatisfaction can in unfavorable
cases led to an egoistic ego-centric assertion of the child’s wishes, to
weeping and self-pity or scenes of inconsiderate rage and despair and finally
to a stubborn self-willedness (inability,to experience in a positive way the
difference to be an adult and being a child.)83
Feelings of concern about the refraining-,
rescue- and pacification activities by the sometimes sad or angry parents and a
need for compensation cannot develop from ego-centricity (Eigen-Willigkeit). If however - in favorable cases - the child despite
its need to be guided and despite its ability for identification (feelings for
the other) still is allowed to express its revolt and its protest, then this is
a certification for a (genuine) “faith in good and helpful objects”. In
certain emergency situations the child may expect helpfulness but must nevertheless
express this by revolt and protest. It must force the educators to negotiate
even if this will at last ends with requirements and prohibitions. It had to
insure itself, again and again; I am not unimportant to them, they have not
disowned me. In this way the child protects itself against the loss of faith in
good and helpful objects. The need for guidance, the feelings of concern for
the objects, together with the ability to revolt and protest, justify the
(genuine) faith in the good and helpful object. This may “in principle “be
checked (inquired) by revolting and protest and despite these provocations
proved to be true. Without such a challenge there is no such a faith., For what
then only would have been left over would be “infantile attachment”,
“seduction” or “subjecting”.
The affect tendency (- e)
It is one of earnings/services of fate
psychology that it tries to determine the affects, their ways they present
themselves, their function in the “psychological household” and their position
between the vital impulse-needs and the Ego in a more exact way. We cannot
simply throw any longer all aggressive and destructive tendencies into one pot
with the label aggression or sadism.
We refer to the distinctions introduced by
Fate analysis between
- Sadism in the Sexual vector.
- The urge to kill in the affect vector.
- The destructivity in the activities of
the Ego and
- The frustration aggression in the
social and contact vector.
The same concerns the different drive
“roots” of the ability to develop a capacity to love. M. Klein described the
meaning of the affect excitations such as envy, jealousy, hate and rage in
connection with the childlike experiencing of being persecuted, depressive
fears and the defense mechanisms of the Ego. The connections of these affect
excitations with certain need frustrations (pain- and agony- and fear
situations) and with aggressive oral, anal and genital needs and with the
defense mechanisms of the Ego are in their complexity and uncannyness often
difficult to see through.
The assumption pushes itself again and
again forward that the primitive affects (envy, jealousy, rage and hate, anger
and revenge) and the fear for their excitation and for the possible
catastrophic effects on the object relations, constitute and present the
dramatic content and core of each disease picture. One get the impression
(assumes) that the different illness categories and disease pictures
essentially “only” are different ways in which the subject searches to be
rescued from the fall into the threatening brinks of disaster that the
primitive affects would lead to.
The death desires and fantasies to kill
The fascination of the child by murder
fantasies is something of the most uncanny experiences with which the child
psychologist has to come to terms with. Wishes to kill, to shoot, to chop of
the head, to hang, to strangle, to run a spear through, to drown or to hack in
pieces, to be devoured or to devour, often connected with the desire to torment
or feelings of revenge often with scornful and destructive feelings of
Triumph. All these one finds, as well in psychotic as in neurotic development
disturbances, in children with POS, in borderline children, but…… also in the
most affectionate sweetest smaller and larger children. They all are fantasy
formations and play activities whose connection with primitive affect
excitations, (sadism or masochism, feelings of manic triumph or destructive
object- and self devaluation) in the origin of the child’s history often is
difficult to understand.
Mostly they have to do with fantastic,
dramatized “productions” of primitive affects, often typical of specific
illnesses. The originally agony and pain producing experiences are difficult to
guess. The fantasies and plays appear as if dissolved from their origin frame:
from the old, already long forgotten or not disclosed frustration- and Ego
impairment feelings. The fears and disappointments and the earlier experience
of being cast between weeping, need for assistance and feelings of rage and
All primitive affects are connected with
specific fears and feelings of pain, each one forms its specific “scene”.
Represented in a simplified way the connections can be : Hate with the feeling
of disappointed love. Rage with suppression, envy with the feeling of not
getting enough or getting nothing. Jealousy connected with the fear of loss
of loss. Revenge with narcissistic offense, sudden anger with the experiencing
of cruelty and inconsideration. The discharge of such affect excitations take
away the pain and the agony. These mental pain sensations (frustration and
feelings of Ego impairment) belong thus to the “internal reality”.
The not discharged affect excitations
(weeping, shrieking and the primitive Affects) and the fear to express them
form the core of the internal reality, seen from its dark threatening side.
(To describe the opposite side one might use the terms of M. Klein “internal
wealth” and “Introjections of the good objects”)
The fantasies of killing, injury and
slaughtering appear mostly, as mentioned, from the “internal reality” as if
detached from the affect and impulse center. They become played up without
affect participation or are transferred, by Phantasms and bysymbolization, into
fantastic scenes. Sometimes they can be considered to be wishes to do away
with objects, to kill them: The child would like to get rid of the objects,
does not want to have to think about them anymore. It wants to break away from
an internal conflict which they originate and which is unsolvable (-e, m-: need
for contact separation). In this action of eliminating can also lay a protest,
which wants to express that it does not need them anymore, that it does not
want them any longer or that it is not anymore afraid for them. The child can
pursue the objects with accusation, with caution and cunning and elimination
(e-, p-: projection). It can surprise them, catch them unaware and kill them
in a violent way (e-) or by devaluation and conquest hurt them (- e, +s, - k, -
m), make them powerless and kill them.
Finally it can act as if being “possessed”
by blood thirst, showing more or less affect, perhaps in the way of a
storm-like fighting against “hallucinated” enemies in a life or death struggle.
If we can recognize, which affect excitation are involved (rage or hate etc.)
we might behind such acting out and fantasies get nearer to the frustrated
longing for love and anxiety.
Especially when we know “what is what” in
the psychology of the primitive affects and the connection of such scenes with
the life-historical events of the child and can when we know the behavior of
the love objects of the child.
The following features within the vector of
the primitive affects are in any Child psychotherapy of crucial importance:
To take the risk to act
out the accumulated primitive affect excitation within a psychodrama situation
or in a transference relationship.
To be able to express
the primitive affect excitations lying at the basis of the fears, pain and
agony feelings. To learn to be able to understand such reactions to pain in
oneself and others.
The affect reversal
from intentions to kill or do unlawful acts into compassion, repairing and
helping (from e- to e+) and to get conscious the feelings of guilt.
The awaking of the need
for protection by setting up limits and by offering support by refraining
affect excitations and
their possible frightening consequences.
The affect tendency (e-) is the affect
energy, which lets humans jump up with pain and agony, get them in excitation.
That forces him to see or search and pursue (p-) the enemy, the cruel
suppressor, the predatory rival, the persecutor or tormentor.
To attack him in amore or less surprising
way or with cunning and caution (e -, p-), to hurt him, make him powerless, to
kill him or to force him to compensate.
The affect excitation and its discharge –
if not misdirected by feelings of paranoid persecution (Delusion) or by an
epileptic type of killing frenzy, erase pain and agony. We must learn to see
these primitive affects as an important energy source, which can expand
the life and the personality in its development. At the same time it cannot be
denied that by these affects much mischief comes into the world.
To be able to experience the energy of (-
e) as a source of strength, as a life-enriching energy; the assumption that in
“hostile feelings” and in “primitive affects lies psychological energy, which
liberates us and ought to be made accessible to us are considerations, which
place us before questions, which not only bring the Psychotherapists in
embarrassment. One has tried to differentiate “constructive” hate from
“destructive”, one speaks of “objective hate” or of hate as a “passion”, by
which we can find stability in us and which opens up an understanding of the
world. One speaks of the “ability” and “inability” to hate, the ability or
inability to feel jealousy .
In this connection we have also to think
about the “affect socializations” by which primitive affects will unload
in a socially “more useful” way, like envy by contest and by free competition.
Rage and revolt by political ideologies, intimidation, threat and combat
missions. Hate by enthusiasm for war games and by killing animals. Revenge by
suppression and despise by he struggle between generations and in class
warfare. The world of today however is so full of destructively “energies”,
and the need for rescue from threatening destruction, coming as well from
the inside as from the outside, is so
88 translation will be
Note: for translation of the word
Befriedung I used “pacification”