Szondi Course . Part I a
(this one correspond to page 1 - 15 of the French original)
· The structural problem of Fateanalyse. Le problème structural de la Schicksalsanalyse
· 6.1.3. The ontogenetic viewpoint and the drive circuit theory. Page 9.
We are proud to publish this translation in English of an article by Jean Mélon. He allowed us to publish the French original on our Forum. The article explains how to interpret the Szondi test, according to the principles of Pathoanalyse.
Any deviation of the original text in this translation is the whole responsibility of your editor. However, as neither one of the translators is a professional we hope you have some patience with our mistakes. David Tharp, London, has promised us to make the final touch as for orthography and syntax. (The French original of this article you can find on the Forum with the title: Cours de Szondi, 1,2,3).
Leo Berlips, editor.
Jean Mélon, professor
The structural problem of Fateanalyse.
Le problème structural de la Schicksalsanalyse.
In contradistinction to other projective techniques, the Szondi test contains its own theory; it is intrinsically a part of the test. SZONDI's main discovery is his "Drivediagram (Triebschema). This is due to the fact that the diagram guided both the making and the definite form of the test, as well as the theoretical elaborations of the empirical data resulting from using the test. Starting on the base of the main clinical categories of classical psychiatry, the drive diagram (Triebsystem) permits, according to SCHOTTE, "the transition from classes to categories" (2).
The classes are those of an original nosographical regroupation, product of the inter junction of the works by KRAEPELIN and BLEULER, who had the intention to create a better order (structuration) of psychiatric entities by using the opposition between cyclophrenies (C) and schizophrenies (Sch) and moreover using FREUD's viewpoint about the rapprochement between sexual perversions (S) and neurosis. The latter defined as "the negative of the perversion", a paradigm of which is hysteria, redefined as a paroxysmal disease, (P).
As for the categories, they are those of the human existence, reviewed in an antropo-psychiatrical perspective which, according to the crystal principle (3) is prone to consider the pathological forms of this existence as "the royal way" to understand the working of the normal psyche. The individual being viewed as having the potential to develop (an ontogenetical point of view), and whose development is submitted to a system of laws (a structural point of view) which are constant and universal.
Szondi joins explicitly FREUD's basic opinion, as when Freud states, among other things:
"We know for a long time that we are to expect to meet the same complexes and the same conflicts in the patients as in normal, healthy people. We are even accustomed to suppose that even every civilised individual has a certain dose of repression of perverse tendencies, of anal eroticism, homosexuality etc., as well as a part of a father or mother complex. It is just as in elementary analysis of organically matter were we likewise doubtlessly could find out the elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and a little sulphur. What distinguish organic matter one from the other is the quantitative proportions and the nature of the connections these elements establish between themselves. It is not the question if these complexes and conflicts exist in both normal and neurotic people but the problem is to know if they have become pathogenic, and if so, what kind of mechanisms have been called into play.
Szondi’s main ambition has always been to found psychopathology as a science, with its own objects and rules, to create an "auto-logical" science, like all the other basic sciences. Doing this in such way that there would be no need to import its concepts from other areas of knowledge, and not to work forever in a bastard, ana-logical way.
To this end SZONDI tried to separate the essential from the accessories in the psychiatric nosography of his time. He succeeded by putting facts into a certain new order, by setting out from the drive concept (Trieb), doubtlessly borrowed from FREUD. His crucial action, which FREUD had refused to do, and which nobody else had ever succeeded with, was to enumerate the number of the drives, to order them in between into a system, to delimit this ensemble and to state that this ensemble formed a structure.
A structure which is precisely the one making the human being to function as an animated person, not by immutable instincts, like the animal, but by a play of pulsions of which the outcome is unpredictable. By this making man not only determined by nature but also by laws which guide his fate. Laws, it has to be said, which are of an extreme complexity in so far, as NIETZSCHE said, Man is "the animal which is not yet defined" (das noch nicht festgestellte Tier), in the meaning of a not yet, and never to be, defined specie.
It is the delimitation of the summing up of the drive factors and vectors and their setting on the test's protocol sheet that gives the drive diagram table its structural character. From now on, every factor and every vector belonging to the table will define itself in relation to the other ones. (Like the words in a Chinese sentence or the interpretation of the Rorschach factors LB)
"Nothing has anymore an autonomous existence, all is remade in and by the networks of meaningful relations: at last we leave the approach in which the mental diseases are considered to be "partes extra partes", with the intention to set up a single structure in which the ensemble recuts them instead of regrouping them. (5)
By this setting up into a table, each member gets, beyond its own meaning, a positional significance for the ensemble. (6)
This brings us to speak of "drive positions", in the Kleinian meaning of the term, rather than of drive tendencies or reactions as SZONDI did.
For SZONDI, psychical or mental diseases are not brain diseases (Hirnkrankheiten) or diseases of the soul (Geistteskrankheit), but drive diseases (Triebkrankheiten).
When Szondi creates his drive system he distinguishes four drives as fundamental: They are the: Contact drive (C) Sexual drive (S) Affect drive, called Paroxysmal (P) drive, the Ego drive (Sch), Sch corresponding here to the first three letters of the word "schizophrenia".
Drives, FREUD already said, are not directly recognizable but only by their representatives (Repräsentanten).
In the best case, when we are lucky, they present themselves - in the form of the affects (Affekte), mental images (Vorstellungen), or actions (Sache), and of words (Worte) - in an extreme form, which causes that one or the other of these drives dissociates from the whole in which they were supposed to live in harmony with each other.
It is this excessiveness of one- or more - drivedemand(s), which unbalances the whole structure and makes it/them stick out in its/their exaggerated singular form.
For example, the need to revenge (e-) or, conversely, to restore (e+), to assert oneself by his or her own merits; these needs could become so strong as to decide the entire fate of the subject. Sometimes making this fate a grandiose one, but sometimes also his misery; making the subject ill or a madman, an infernal being for both himself or his fellow creatures.
If we consider the four main drives, or the four vectors (as SZONDI calls them), we may say the following:
The Contact troubles are troubles of the mood, called thymopsychopaties, in their extreme form represented by mania and depression; (m) and (d), the initials of mania and, respective, depression, the two factors of the Contact vector. They are the ones of our basic relation with the environment, of tuning in (in its musical sense of the term, Stimmung) to the rhythm of life. They are troubles in relating to the surroundings (atmosphere, environment); bad mood, in short, a mood out of tune.
Sexual troubles are perversions; the perverse unbalance is produced when the entire life is dominated by the wish to posses the sexual object in its whole. When the jouissance (sensual pleasure/but here... ), in an almost juridical meaning of this term, becomes the only goal, or the supreme one; the typical representants of the perversions are the homosexual and the sadist.
Paroxysmal troubles are neurotic troubles. Szondi's definition of neurosis is not the common one. The definition, which Szondi gives, is not the common one. For Szondi, neurotic troubles, stricto sensu, are those interfering with the affective life, and which manifest themselves by blatantly breaking out in crises, by paroxysms, hence the concept of paroxysmality.
But what produces the affects? It is not, says Szondi, the relation with the object or the environment. But the confrontation, always surprising and always conflict laden, with the principle (norm) of the Law, and of the two great fundamental interdictions which are the ban on killing the father and the prohibition of incest, in other words of the Oedipal wishes.
The prototypical representants of neurosis, defined as a more or less permanent state of crises, are according to Szondi, not the obsessional and hysterical patient, as FREUD states, but the epileptic and hysteric, just those who react violently to the (oedipal) crisis with crises.
At last the distortions of the ego, which have to do with the ontogenesis of the ego, to the ego's "self-con-struction " (Selbst-er-haltung) (7) as it’s self-preserving. (Selbsterhaltung). With in a negative form, the destruction of the relation between subject and himself which leads to the extreme forms of identity problems we are meeting in psychosis, and especially in Schizophrenia, of which the prototypical
figures are catatonia and paranoia
THE STRUCTURAL VIEUWPOINT AND THE REFERENCE TO THE PRIMAL PHANTASIES:
Seen from a structural perspective SZONDI has never doubted that his drive schema, with its eight factors regrouped in four vectors, build up a system or a structure (8), in other words a whole which was something more than a mere sum of its elements. These elements, like the language phonemes, the musical notes or the atoms in Chemistry, don't define themselves and don't receive and don't receive any determination, except by the relations they establish with all the other elements of the system, which even when genetic nevertheless is not at random.
But SZONDI has never been really concerned to justify the structural quality he had ascribed to his schema, nor to consider it necessary to explain the way he had borrowed the drive concept from FREUD. SZONDI had the qualities and flaws specific to intuitive geniuses. When he was asked: Why four vectors and eight drive factors, he just answered: "Show me some other and we'll see". In such games, he always won. During the time the speaker recovered his vocal cords, SZONDI had already arrived at another matter, mostly casually with an irresistible Jewish humor, entirely discouraging the collocutor to come back to these epistemological questions which seemed to be so manifest idly and unworthy to SZONDI.
This is the weak spot of his theoretical approach. As the theory is not epistemologically grounded, its systematization seems to be unwarranted if not completely fanciful. If we add to this the still more fanciful character of the "genotropic" theory, it shouldn't seem surprisingly that SZONDI got (found) little success in the scientific world, although he had not any other ideal except that of being a scientist. (9)
It is a fact that FREUD has always avoided defining too precisely the concept of drive, by joking about its (invoking its "grandiose uncertainty", which he refused to account for (10) and that he likewise rejected any attempt of systematisation, suspected a priori of "philosophism". He was content with the sharp but loose summaries opposing ego drives to sexual ones, object libido to ego, life instincts to the death ones.
We think (11) we have pointed out the structural aspects of both SZONDI and FREUD, by establishing the factual homology between the Szondian vectors and Freudian primal phantasies.
In the final discussion on the Wolfman case, FREUD defined most precisely what he had understood by primal phantasies (Urphantasien), here assimilated to inborn "phylogenetic schema", to "categories"- in the Kantian meaning of the term- of the primal thinking (unconscious) and to the animal instinct. Which shows very well, if it still would need to be proved any more, that FREUD's equivalent for the animal instinct is not the drive but, the primal phantasies as a "previous knowledge" ("Vorbereitung zum Verständnis"), literally: preparing for understanding) as obviously in the following text:
"I have finished what I have had to say about this morbid case. Two of the numerous questions it arouses seem to require a particular mention. The first is related to the phylogenetic schemas the child brings with him at birth (the primal phantasies). These schemas, similar to philosophical "categories", play the role of "classifying" the further sensory experience which life brings to the child (Schemata, die wie philosophische "Kategorien" die Unterbringung der Lebenseindrücke besorgen)....
The Oedipal complex, which includes the relations between the child and his parents, is one of them; it is, in fact, the best known example.
(13) The second problem is not very far away from the first; however, it is much more important. If we consider the 4 years old child's behavior in presence of the reactivated primal scene (the dream about wolves as a moment of the emergence of the castration phantasy and of the anxiety provoking the hysterical phobia in little Serge), and likewise when we think of the even more simple reactions (the defecation as stirring the anal excitation) of the 1 1/2 years old child in presence of this scene, we can hardly give up the idea that something like a previous knowledge in the child is activated.
We absolutely can't imagine of what such a "knowledge" (Wissen) consists; we have at this point only one but excellent analogy: the instinctive knowledge of the animals.
If the human being also possesses an instinctive patrimony of this type, we may not be puzzled there is no reason to be surprised that this patrimony especially refers to the sexual life processes, although it is not limited to these alone. This unconscious patrimony would form the core of the unconscious (Kern des Unbewussten), a kind of primitive mental activity (eine primitive Geistestätigkeit), destined to be subsequently set aside and later be recovered by human reason (Menschenvernunft), when reason will be acquired. Nevertheless, often, and maybe in respect to all of us, this instinctive patrimony keeps the power to draw to itself the higher mental processes.
The repression would be a return to this instinctual stage and in such a way man would, with his aptitude to neurosis, pay the price for his great new achievement; by this he witnesses moreover the fact that neurosis depend and are made possible by the earlier instinctual stages.
The important role of the trauma occurring in the early years of childhood would be to furnish to the unconsciousness a material that will preserve it from wearing out during the further evolution.
The primal fantasies, as a "core of the unconsciousness" (Kern des Unbewussten) and as inductors of a precomprehension- to which corresponds the theories of the infantile sexuality- of what occurs to the little man, defined as a subject of/to the drives, are the organizers of the human wishes, as these wishes dig their roots precisely in the fantasies.
As LAPLANCHE and PONTALIS have significantly pointed out, the primal phantasies have the task to account for the origin as well as for the sudden emergence of the first constitutive elements of the human wish as they offer at the same time a matrix and give it a shape by setting up a scene in which the roles of subject and object are not given in advance.
The final lines of their article raises the problem of why and how:
"But the phantasy is not the object of the wish, it is a scene. Indeed in the phantasy, the subject doesn't aim at the object or its sign; he is appears taking part in the scene. He doesn't represent the wished object, but he is represented as taking part in the play.
However without that, in the most elementary phantasy form, a fixed place could be ascribed to him (hence the danger, in the analytical therapy, to make such an interpretation).
The consequences: by always placing himself in the phantasy, the subject can be there in an unsubjectivated form, which means in the syntax itself of that specific sequence. On the other hand, as the wish is not a direct (pure) emergence of the drive, but is articulated in the phrase of the phantasy, it is here we find the selection place of
the most primitive defensive mechanisms: turning round against the subject's own self, reversal into the opposite, projection, negation. These mechanisms are even inextinguishable bound to the phantasy’s primary function - the setting up of the desired scene -. if it is true that the wish itself appears as forbidden, that the conflict itself is an original conflict. (conflict originaire)
As for to know what the significance is of the "setting up of the show" and to decide, the analyst should not rely any longer neither on the mere resources of his own science nor even those of the myth. He should moreover become a philosopher. "
If we refer to the Lacanian trilogy of Symbolic, Imaginary and Real, we may say that
the Real, impossible to be known as such, is represented by the drive; that
the Imaginary is made up of the subject's idiosyncratic series of phantasies, "the connecting and transitional ideas" (15) and
the Symbolic is the whole, the structure of the rules (laws) guiding the psychical reality function of which the primal phantasies, as organising schemas of the wish, represent in a certain way the matrix.
It is easy enough to see that in Szondi's
Sexual vector the major topic is that of the relation to one's body, viewed as an object of sensual pleasure and seduction, that the Paroxysmal vector confronts the subject to the Law, to the main interdictions of incest and parricide, the primal scene being the place where the two incompatible sexualities: the infantile and the adult one are meeting, and that the
Ego vector, is setting the question of the differential identification between "to be" and "to have", and points out to the decisive question of 1) the difference between sexes through phantasy and 2) the castration theory.
With respect to the
Contact vector, it is put in relation to the primal phantasy of the regression into the mother's uterus, phantasy which Freud has always hesitated to insert in the series of primal phantasies because he has seen it as a kind of mythical idealized transposition of the primal scene phantasy. What he writes in his commentary in connection with the case Wolfman, referring to the symbol of the "veil" (17), permits us to grasp the basic meanings of this symbol, which is to catch the complementary and opposed wishes to a) find again the mythical happiness of the maternal paradise, where life and death are mixed up (C - +) and b) to be given birth again by breaking the cocoon and "throwing oneself out". or jump down.
The putting in relation the Szondian vectors and primal phantasies allows us to consider them, from a topographical point of view, as the places and scenes of a topic, of a trauma or of a complex (18), of an anxiety, of the priority of a differentiated drive (19), of a wish (20) and of a drive fate (21), each of them being set up with relative specificity:
One sees there how the Szondi diagram makes it possible to gather in a coherent way, and to format, a series of concepts whose homogeneity is thus underlined but which, with FREUD and others, generally arise to the state " disjecta membra ", for example the series of the primal phantasies, modes of the anguish, drive destinies etc. With each of the Szondi vectors a particular field of psychic operation with its own problem corresponds, in particular with regard to:
the report/ratio with the body,
the relation subject-object,
the grammatical position of the person,
a certain type of aggressive aiming etc.
The passage from one field to another is carried out through a channel die where each time must be worked out a well-defined type of dialectical conflict. The following table gives a diagrammatic representation of it.
|PSYCHIC ACTIVITY VECTOR
||Type Subject-Object relationship
||Type specific aggression
||Place of body
|FUSIONNAL VECTOR(pre-Objectal, pre-narcissistic
ANAL SEPARATION (depressive)
Nor subject in the proper sense
|Refusal of the mother (or of the space of the family, as global environment
|The body as the place of sensations
||The indefinite"IT" (the German "Es)
||Return to the mothers womb
Seduction problem / Sado-masochistic Dialectics (perverse)
|Subject and object corresponds
||Murder of the double(the brother)
||The body as a objectified totality
||The third person. "HE"
|Transgression VECTOR (Objectal, oedipal)
Problem with "the Law" / dialectics (HYSTERIC) of the "forbidden" and of the "desire"
|The subject (desiring) is distinct from the (desired) object
||The murder of the Tyrant (father of the horde)
||The body as forbidden / desired
||The second person "YOU" (vocative form)
||Primal Scene (coit of parents)
|SUBJECTIVE VECTOR (secondary narcissistic
Problems with CASTRATION / Dialectics of "to be" and "to have"
|The subject confronts himself
||Destruction of the self.
||The body as representation. (the 'Ego" as the heir of the body)
||The first person "I" (the subject of the word)
6.1.3. THE ONTOGENETIC VIEUWPONT AND THE DRIVE CIRCUIT THEORY.
In 1975, Jacques SCHOTTE proposed to generalise to the four vectors of Szondi’s drivediagram the idea of the drive circuit (Triebesumlaufsbahn) which Szondi had introduced (24) only for the Sch vector.
Szondi put this concept of a circuit in connection with two ideas:
At one side that normality or mental health depends on a certain drive mobility, in contradistinction to the petrification of certain cleavages, and in certain rigid structures which are a sign of pathology.
At the other side the concept of a circuit which evokes the idea of an order with an increasing complexity between the different functions of the Ego. The cicuit proposed by Szondi is the following: from 1. (p-) to 2. (p+), to 3. (k+) and 4. (k-)
This circuit, with the shape of a question mark, raises a problem.
According to SZONDI, it is actualized through the habitual development of an analytical or psychotherapeutical cure where it is supposed that
every psychical content is successively tackled in the life of the Ego according to the hierarchical order of the so-called defense functions...
The content would emerge first in the form of projection (p-) as if coming from the outside, then it would become conscious (p+), permitting it to assimilate the mental image. Afterwards the introjection of a part of the contents assimilated by consciousness would take place (k+) for at last, the non-introjected contents would be repressed (k-).
For instance, if someone experiences a homosexual attraction, first he experiences it as if this feeling is arousen by a homosexual object, from the outside. Thus, he identifies in a projective way- the Kleiniens call this projective identification- his own homosexual tendencies. Put in other words, he feels the original experience in a projective way (p-). In a second phase, if one follows SZONDI’s opinion, he gets aware (p+) of his own homosexual desire. In a third phase, he has to decide (k: the Ego which takes position: Das Stellungnehmende Ich). He will introject (k+) certain specific characteristics (Einzige Zuge, the expression comes from FREUD) particular to the homosexual object, other ones being rejected (k-) in the same time by negation (Verneinung), repression (Verdrängung) or rejection (Verurteilung).
When making this type of circuit, SZONDI invokes textually the development of the analytical cure, more rational than classical. The subject actualises his own wish phantasies in the transferential relation, which corresponds in fact to a activity of projective identification (p-); afterwards, ideally, he identifies his wish by getting aware of it (p+), then works it through, divides the parts, put apart something, conserves another part. Introject or incorporate it (k+) or represses it, or if he can (k-) mourns the rest.
Such a schema can very well reflect the apparent global development of the analytical cure, but stands in contrast with the empirically provided genetical or developmental data. The tendency of getting aware of the wish (p+) appears only after the denying tendency (k-). Put in other words, we always say no before yes; a yes is not really a yes except for following a no. Actually, the philosophers have always known this: Omnis negatio est affirmatio.
From a genetical point of view, at least concerning our culture, the rational-denying tendency (k-) emerges more and more firmly along the latency period (from 6 to 10 years) , the awareness of the wish (p+: das Wunschbewusstwerden) gets a certain importance only in the late adolescence period .
On the other hand, we there are good reasons that ego ontogenesis takes place according to the schema proposed by Susan DERI (26):
||The indistinction between the ego and the other (until one year) .
||( + - )
||The magical-autistical omnipotence (pre-oedipian period)
||( ± - )
||The turbulence phase (oedipien age)
||(- - )
||The latency period
||(- 0 )
||The start of adolescence
||( - +)
First the subject discovers him or herself in a fellow creature or in his or her owns image in the mirror. This corresponds to projective identification mechanism (Sch 0 -). Afterwards, he introjects this image (k+) to make it the core of his or her own ideal ego (Sch + -), a body-instance endowed with a magic omnipotence.
Thus emerges the primary narcissism- stricto sensu-, by the privileged cathexis of the object-ego, produced on the base of a reflected image, (which is so well illustrated by the Narcissus myth.
This primary narcissist imago which is the result of a process of seduction, creating in the subject the illusion that he himself is the centre of the world and the exclusive object of the desire of the other. In other words this means to be the object - the phallus- that is missing in the other.
This imago will necessarily suffer a deflation under the double impact of the revelation of the difference between generations- You are not yet anywhere! - and between sexes: You miss something, or there is something everybody misses and thus you too could become deprived of it or lose it
The reaction (k-), with by its function negation and repression is in contrast to the affirmation and introjection of (k+), initiates and makes sure the process of transformation in the paradoxal meaning of neutralizing (Aufhebung). In other words by a mutation where the repression of the old state does not imply its total destruction (pure and simple) but on the contrary assures its maintenance under the form of a new species.
The Aufhebung/Neutralization fullfils the double function of replacing the primary narcissim by the means of
self-critics / the birth of the super-ego/ and at the same time
preservs the same narcissism, by means of a negation of the injuries suffered by the first ideal ego (Sch+ -, + 0). Together with the transfer of the primary narcissistic libido to the secondary instance of the ego ideal (p+) which the subject projects in front of himself, as the heir of the lost narcissism of his childhood; when he was for himself his own ideal. (27)
But behind this instance of the ego ideal is hidden the first and the most important of all the identifications, that with the father from the personal pre-history, an immediate identification before any other object choice. (28)
· Accepting this point of view brings about to consider that the primordial identification with the primary father, (Urvater) prototype of the Superego and of the Superman (Uberich, Ubermensch) can be placed at the origin (arch) as well at the end (teloz).
· As well the becoming-a-Self, as an ancient imago (Urmensch) and as a teleological prototype for becoming-the Superman to be. (Ubermensch)
This remark is very important because it emphasizes how the genetic point of view is subordinated to the structural point of view that contains it, following the principle of the ontico-onthologic reversibility.
This means that from
· the onthologic point of view, following the order of the being (l’être), the position p+ is placed at the origin of the circuit, while from
· the ontic point of view, following the order of the state (l’étant), p+ is placed at the terminal stage of the development and of the circuit of the ego, which gives a sense to Goethe’s adage: Become what you are! The final identification (secondary) with the father replaces the primary, originary identification.
By that we understand that in the ontic order (development), due to the fact of the prematurity and of the neoteny that specifically characterizes the human being, the identification process begins and has its roots in the primary projection (p-).
This consists in placing the ideal of the omnipotence of the ego into another, concrete exterior, invested with this omnipotence, another in which the subject participates (p-), as FREUD shows in his Collective psychology and ego analysis (29). The other might be incarnated, as in the exemples of Freud, by the chief, the hypnotiser, the loveobject but also the mother.
The introjection (k+) consists in including the whole or only a part of the ideal loveobject, in which the subject participates (Sch + -).
The negation and repression (k -)operate in the name of a superior agency: the Superego-Ideal of the ego (Sch - +). It leads to the desexualization and to the mourning of the primary object, having as a corollary, the transfer of the libido to outside objects and the abandonment of the primary narcissism (body-related) to the benefit of the secondary one (spiritual).
Hence, we get an ego circuit in the form of an eight-reversed shape.
SCHOTTE propose to generalize this vieuw of the circuit to the other four drive vectors.
In the interior-of each vector, a certain order of succesion is set up between the four poles consisting of the positive and negative positions of each factor. These circuits create an asymmetry between the both factors of each vector. From now, there exist in every vector a factor- called director (m, h, e, p)- the inner dialectics of which is mediated by the other one.
The passing from the first to the final position is made by means of the second factor, which is used as a mediator (d, s, hy, k)..
Finally the circuits create a temporal dimension, the progressive way of which can be seen when reading the schema and the positions where before Szondi only had suggested an exclusiv spatial arrangement.
The genetical reading we plan to apply from here on, is of course, a development of this latter (temporal) quality.
If every circuit is a reflection of the whole schema, conversely, the reading from a periodical perspective, based on the sequential order C-S-Sch-P, is by this completed or enriched. The entire schema could be from now on the object of a circular reading.
This means that the relations between the vectors in the schema are homologous with the relations between the positions within a vector.
The introducion of the drive circuits makes the drive diagram a structure with two levels. This is a characteristic, which proves to be fundamental for our present development, as well as from a theoretical point of view as for the interpretative applications, based on the ground of the testresults.
This double level of the circuits allows the introduction of the 16 drive positions into a table with two entrances, which presents them
· in series e.g (C: m+ d- d+ m-) ) and
· on the level 1-4; (e.g. level 1: m+ h+ e- p-), evoking something analogous to the periodical table of the elements conceived by MENDELEEV:
Let us try to describe very shortly the specific features of the various levels represented by the columns of the table, for which we suppose that they are disposed in an order of a rising complexity.
Level 1 and the Contact vector.
The first level refers to an essentially dependent subject, from all points of view, tributary to that which is happening in his environment, hence susceptible to be easily frustrated if the others don’t satisfy his expectations.
Level 2 and Sexual vector.
The second positions of the circuits correspond to a moment of auto-erotic return into phantasy (30) ; it is a mirrorlike imaginary moment. In this sense it markes a first tendance to autonomy compared to the precedent positions.
If on the first level the idea of the environment or ambiance prevails, on the second level appears the notion of the object. Especially of the body apperceived as an objectified totality, isolated opf the background in the visual vectror. This emphasis the imaginary dimension of the object category, because as for the object it refers here before anything else to the investment of an image, the image of the narcissistic body.
Level 3 and Vector P
On the third level, the subject pulls out himself from the self-compliance of the 2-nd position, due to the impact of the law: deprival, exclusion and interdiction. The passing from 2 to 3 calls into play the negation of the cathexis of the objects, the latter having been made in the second position, where the phantasy dimension prevailed. The anticathexis process, a necessary counterpart of the repression, gives the subject acces to external objects, this time really other ones. The 3- position is defined as the lawful-realist-rational position.
Level 4 and vector Sch
The 4-th level marks the appearing on the scene of the subject in the first person: the subject who projects, who desires, the subject of his own word. It is the time of the subject’s maximum autonomisation, which gets a pathologic (psychotic) form if it correlates with the breaking off the relations with the environment.
The 4-th level is also potentially the level of sublimation and of creation, where the subject projects to be free and responsible of his (owning) deciding owing his fate, the latter conceived as a history to be made. (end of page 15 of the original) Continues with page 15 - 23 La lecture périodique des circuits pulsionnels (6.1.4). The reading from a periodical perspective of the drive circuits.
1) Jacques Schotte. De la 1) Schicksalsanalyse a la Pathoanalyse. Liege, Cahiers du CEP, no. 3, 1993, p. 4 "
The essential thing for us, - in the genial discovery of Szondi -, is the constitution of the drive system. This system is, of course, at the source of the test; it is tightly bound to the test, being the base of its practical use. But, it goes beyond its testological use as a tool, because it has been there from the beginning, because it was the instrument used to analyse of the whole genotropic theory.
2. ) Jacques Schotte. Notice pour introduire le problem structural de la Schicksalsanalyse. Zurich, Hans Huber, Szondiana 5, 1964, pp. 114-201. Repeated in Jacques Schotte’s book. Szondi avec Freud. Sur la voie d'une psychiatrie pulsionelle. (Szondi and Freud, on the road to a drive psychiatry. ) Bruxelles, De Boeck-Universite, 1990, pp. 21-76.
3) Sigmund Freud (1932). Nouvelle conferences sur la psychanalyse", Paris, Gallimard, Idees, 1971, p. 80 (GW, XV, 64, "Die Zerlegung der psychischen Personlichkeit").
"We know pathology is able, by amplifying the symptoms, to make them more evident, to call our attention to the normal conditions which, without this, wouldn't have been noticed.
In the points where pathology shows us a break or a breach, normally there might only be a breach, (Gliederung). Casting a crystal to the ground, it will break, no matter how, according to its own cleavage lines (Spaltrichtungen), When we throw a crystal on the ground it will break into pieces, but not anyhow but cracking down following the lines
established in advance by the structure of the crystal. (Spaltrichtungen). These cracked or fissured structures (rissige und gesprungene Strukturen) although invisible are also those patients suffering of a mental desease. In respect to the madman, we still feel a little the respectuous fear that the ancients felt of them. These mental patients have retreated from the contact with outside reality, and that is why they rightly know more than we do about the inner reality and can show us something which without them, would have remained impenetrable".
4) Sigmund Freud (1912). Pour introduire la discussion sur l'onanisme. In Résultats, Idees, Problemes I. Paris, PUF, 1980, p. 180.
5)Jacques Schotte. "Notice... ", p. 155.
6)Jean Melon. "Revision de la doctrine szondienne des pulsions". (Revision of the Szondi Drive doctrine) Montpellier, Fortuna, Bulletin du groupe d'etudes szondienne de Montpellier, septembre 1987, nr. 3, p. 5.
7) It is Jacques Schotte's merit to give a purely etymological definition to what FREUD had called before "ego drives" (Ichtriebe) and "self-preservation drives" (Selbsterhaltungstriebe), as he had opposed them, in his first theory of drive dualism, to the "sexual drives".
Etymologically, (sich - Selbst-erhalten) means "to hold oneself". This permits us, by the mediation of only one and the same signifier, to re-unite the questionable data of psychoanalytical ego-theory which means a) the articulation of the basic question of its base, of its sexual origin and of its essential narcissistic-imaginary nature with b) the question of its functions –self conserving – of defense and control of the drives.
8) Leopold Szondi (1947). Diagnostic expérimental des pulsions (Experimental drive diagnostic). Paris, PUF, 1952, p. 1.
"We may use the following metaphor: a drive system must show us a synthetic view of the whole ensemble of pulsional life, which can be compared with the global perception of the white light, but it must be able to show the drive "spectre", in the same way as the light is decomposable in its own colours. This is a very difficult task and it's not surprisingly that nobody has ever achieved it"
9) Jean Melon. Revision de la doctrine szondienne des pulsions. Montpellier, Fortuna, 3, septembre 1987, p. 4
"Szondi's theory, in its original version, always arouses skepticism on several points, particularly where it states that psychical heredity is based on eight pairs of alleles. Everybody knows how unlikely this thesis seems in the light of modern genetics theory. To give nevertheless credit to SZONDI's theory under these circumstances means to perceive and deal with it from a new point of view and that one researches its reliability in a different way".
10) Sigmund Freud (1915). Pulsions et destins des pulsions.
(Drives and their fate In Metapsychologie. Paris, Gallimard, Idees, 1971, p. 22.
"Once finished our researches, I doubt if ever will be possible, based on our psychological data, to get some crucial index in order to separate and classify the drives".
As for SZONDI, the paradox is that, though calling himself a pure empiricist, he has taken, at least in his basic creative approach, a modern scientific attitude, in the textual meaning of Kant, namely of a transcendental idealism, which produces a model according to Goethe's adage: " Everything In science is to get an insight (survey, outline of the whole), which means an apperception of what lies at the bottom of phenomena. Such an insight is immensely fertile. "
Quoted by Schotte in "Szondi avec Freud", op. cit., p. 20.
11) Jean Melon. Positions pulsionelles, fantasmes originaires et système des pulsions.
(Drive positions, primal phantasms, and the drive system). Psychiatrique de Liège, 1980, 13, 1, pp. 17-26.
A short version of this article was edited with the title "Fantasmes originaires selon Freud et système szondien des pulsions" in Psychanalyse a l'Universite, Paris, 1980, 5, 20, pp. 673-680.
12) Sigmund Freud (1917). Extrait de l'histoire d'une névrose infantile (L'Homme aux loups). GW XII, 155-156. In Cinq Psychanalyses, translated by Marie Bonaparte, Paris, PUF, 1967, pp. 418-419.
13) Jean Melon. Ibidem.
Melon states, for good reason, that the Oedipal phantasy is not a primal phantasy, but the fantasy which comprises the four primal phantasies, with the facets: thymopsychopatic (C: regression), perverse (S: seduction), neurotic (P: interdiction-exclusion) and psychotic (castration- annihilation)
14) Jean Laplanche and J. B. Pontalis. Fantasmes originaire, fantasmes des origines, origine du fantasme(Primal fantasmes, phantasms about origin, and the origin of the phantasms). Les Temps Modernes, 215, pp. 1833-1868, 1964.
15) Sigmund Freud, GW II-III, p. 625. Quoted by Laplanche and Pontalis, op. cit, p. 1837.
"Do we have to ascribe to the unconscious wishes a reality of their own? I would not know what to say. Of course one has to refuse this, as for all the transitional and connecting ideas. When we meet the unconscious wishes, brought to their final and the most veritable expression, one must say that psychical reality is a particular form of existence, that ought not to be mixed with the material reality"
16. Sandor Ferenczi (1932). Confusion de langue entre les adultes et l'enfant. Le langage de la tendresse et de la passion. (Language confusion between adults and children. / The language of tenderness and passion. - (Sprachverwirrung zwischen den Erwachsenen und dem Kind. Die Sprache der Zärtlichkeit und der Leidenschaft). Oeuvres complètes, IV. Paris, Payot, 1982, pp. 125-135.
17). Sigmund Freud. L'Homme aux Loups, op. cit., pp. 401-403.
18)Jacques Lacan. La famille. Encyclopédie Française, tome 8, 40, 3-16, 1938.
19) Sigmund Freud (1915). Pulsions et destins des pulsions. In Métapsychologie. Paris, Gallimard Idées, 1968, pp. 18-20.
20) Jacques Schotte. Notes d'un séminaire inédit, vers 1980.
21) Ibidem, p. 25.
22)This table is reproduced by Jean Melon. La position dépressive chez Szondi. Paris, Psychiatries, Revue française des Psychiatres d'exercice privé, 43, 1, 1981, p. 81.
23) Jacques Schotte. Recherches nouvelles sur les fondements de l’Analyse du Destin. Notes de cours 1975-76. Archives Szondi,Louvain-la-Neuve. For more details on Schotte’s approach, see Jean Mélon et Philippe Lekeuche, Dialectique des pulsions, 3-rd ed., Bruxelles, De Boeck Université, 1990, pp. 20-25.
24) Léopold Szondi. Schicksalsanalytische Therapie .Bern, Hans Huber, 1963, pp. 389-391.
25) Jean Mélon. Le point de vue szondien sur la période de latence. Feuillets psychiatriques de Liège, 13, 140-159, 1980.
26) See article by J.P van Meerbeek in annexe 2 at the end of this volume
27) Susan Deri (1949)Introduction au test de Szondi. Traduction de Jean Mélon. Bruxelles, De Boeck Université, 1991, pp. 182-204.
27) Sigmund Freud (1914). Pour introduire le narcissisme. In La vie sexuelle, Paris, PUF, 1970, p. 98.
28) Sigmund Freud (1923). Le moi et le ça. In Essais de Psychanalyse. Paris, Payot, 1973, p. 200.
29) Sigmund Freud (1921). Psychologie collective et analyse du moi. In Essais de Psychanalyse. Paris, Payot, 1973, pp.
31) Jean Melon and Philippe Lekeuche. Dialectique..., op. cit., p. 25
32) The merits of having set in order this new method and its theoretic elaboration are due to Jean Marc POELLAER